Analysis of stimulus-induced brain dynamics during naturalistic paradigms
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Erez Simony, Catie ChangAbstractNaturalistic stimuli offer promising avenues for investigating brain function across the rich, realistic spectrum of human experiences. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of brain activity during naturalistic paradigms have provided new information about dynamic neural processing in ecologically valid contexts. Yet, the complex, uncontrolled nature of such stimuli -- and the resulting mixture of neuronal and physiological responses embedded within the fMRI signals -- present challenges with respect to data analysis and interpretation. In this brief commentary, we discuss methods and open challenges in naturalistic fMRI investigations, with a focus on extracting and interpreting stimulus-induced fMRI signals.
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Luhui Cai, Yanli Liang, Huanjian Huang, Xia Zhou, Jinou ZhengAbstractBackgroundAnti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis showing severe neuropsychiatric symptoms is the most common type of autoimmune encephalitis. However, the corresponding standard clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) presents normal or atypical in the majority of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Here, this study aimed to investigate the alterations in brain functional activity in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and whether these a...
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): James T. Grist, Stephanie Withey, Lesley MacPherson, Adam Oates, Stephen Powell, Jan Novak, Laurence Abernethy, Barry Pizer, Richard Grundy, Simon Bailey, Dipayan Mitra, Theodoros N. Arvanitis, Dorothee P. Auer, Shivaram Avula, Andrew C PeetAbstractThe imaging and subsequent accurate diagnosis of paediatric brain tumours presents a radiological challenge, with magnetic resonance imaging playing a key role in providing tumour specific imaging information. Diffusion weighted and perfusion imaging are commonly used to aid the non-invasive...
ConclusionA combination of DCE-MRI- and 18F-FDG-PET-derived parameters provides high accuracy for histopathological grading of hepatocellular carcinoma in a relevant translational model system.
Conclusion: Bilateral condyle fractures with a concomitant inferior clivus fracture are rare, and there is no known optimal strategy. Here, in an intact patient, instability of the CCJ warranted an O-C2 fusion. PMID: 31966930 [PubMed]
Conclusion: SACs are rare with no consensus on the indications for surgery. Our experience suggests that fenestration of SAC through transcranial approach is a valid option for patients with visual deficit and/or pituitary dysfunction. PMID: 31966929 [PubMed]
Conclusion: This case report and literature review focused on the rarity of acute idiopathic/spontaneous subdural hematomas. PMID: 31966928 [PubMed]
Conclusion: Epithelioid GBM is one of the rarest morphologic subtypes of GBM and has a strongly infiltrative and aggressive nature. Therefore, careful identification of preoperative imaging studies and detailed evaluation of genetic studies are necessary to select the appropriate treatment for epithelioid GBM. PMID: 31966927 [PubMed]
Conclusions: This is the third case of primary ES of the petroclival bone to be reported in the literature. In this patient, management consisted of surgical incisional biopsy followed by adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Knowledge and awareness of this type of tumor is important for the skull base surgeon. PMID: 31966925 [PubMed]
Conclusion: There were no complications resulting from partial sternotomy in the two cases presented. CEA with partial sternotomy could be an effective treatment option for CCAO in which the internal carotid artery is patent and thrombus extends to the proximal CCA. PMID: 31966920 [PubMed]
ConclusionsWe found evidence suggesting widespread white matter microstructure deficits in adolescents and young adults with NSSI versus HC. We also report inverse associations between white matter integrity and clinical characteristics (duration of NSSI and attentional impulsivity). These white matter microstructural deficits may represent a possible neurobiologically-based vulnerability to developing maladaptive coping mechanisms, such as NSSI. Additionally, results suggest that this white matter disorganization may either worsen with prolonged engagement in NSSI or predict persistent NSSI; thereby highlighting the impor...