Markov Chain Modeling of HIV, Tuberculosis, and Hepatitis B Transmission in Ghana.

Markov Chain Modeling of HIV, Tuberculosis, and Hepatitis B Transmission in Ghana. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2019;2019:9362492 Authors: Twumasi C, Asiedu L, Nortey ENN Abstract Several mathematical and standard epidemiological models have been proposed in studying infectious disease dynamics. These models help to understand the spread of disease infections. However, most of these models are not able to estimate other relevant disease metrics such as probability of first infection and recovery as well as the expected time to infection and recovery for both susceptible and infected individuals. That is, most of the standard epidemiological models used in estimating transition probabilities (TPs) are not able to generalize the transition estimates of disease outcomes at discrete time steps for future predictions. This paper seeks to address the aforementioned problems through a discrete-time Markov chain model. Secondary datasets from cohort studies were collected on HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and hepatitis B (HB) cases from a regional hospital in Ghana. The Markov chain model revealed that hepatitis B was more infectious over time than tuberculosis and HIV even though the probability of first infection of these diseases was relatively low within the study population. However, individuals infected with HIV had comparatively lower life expectancies than those infected with tuberculosis and hepatitis B. Discrete-time Markov chain technique is recommended a...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Related Links:

This study assessed which HIV care quality indicators were associated with healthcare resource utilization and costs. Design: Retrospective analysis of Texas Medicaid claims data (01 January 2012 to 31 September 2016). Methods: Included patients had at least two HIV-related medical claims during the identification period (01 July 2012 to 31 August 2014) (index = date of first HIV claim), were 18–62 years at index, and were continuously enrolled in the 6-month pre-index and 1-year post-index periods. Dependent variables included emergency department (ED) visits, inpatient hospitalizations, prescription count...
Source: AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research
Abstract The main advantage of animal models of infectious diseases over in vitro studies is the gain in understanding of the complex dynamics between the immune system and the pathogen. While small animal models have practical advantages over large animal models, it is crucial to be aware of their limitations. Although the small animal model at least needs to be susceptible to the pathogen under study to obtain meaningful data, key elements of pathogenesis should also be reflected when compared to humans. Well-designed small animal models for HIV, hepatitis viruses, and tuberculosis require additionally a thoroug...
Source: Current HIV Research - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Curr HIV Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant progress in the treatment for people with HIV, coinfections continued to affect this population.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
AbstractThe aim of this work is to reveal impacts of a nuclear power plant on environmental radioactivity and public health since commission in the South China Sea. After long-term monitoring, it turns out that radioactivity in ambient air environment, water, soil, sweet potato, rice, chicken, lamb, butterfish and prawn meet demands of national environment protection standards and food safety standards in China. After 6 years ’ statistic check of local residents, the top tree diseases before and after the plant’s commission remained pulmonary tuberculosis, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and hepatitis B. Incidence...
Source: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Lai HC, Chang CH, Cheng KS, Chen TW, Tsai YY, Chou JW Abstract Taiwan has a lower prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a higher prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) infection than Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of latent TB (LTB) and active TB infection in IBD patients treated with biological agents. From January 2000 to September 2018, we retrospectively collected data from IBD patients treated with biological agents at a tertiary referral center. Patients underwent a QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT) to screen for TB infection before and after biological ...
Source: Gastroenterology Research and Practice - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Gastroenterol Res Pract Source Type: research
By Margarite Nathe, Principal Editor/Writer, IntraHealth International ; Lucy Mphuru, Country Director&Project Director, Tohara Plus Project Lucy Mphuru (center left) talks with health workers and clients at an IntraHealth-supported mobile clinic in Shinyanga that provides voluntary male circumcision services. Photo by Trevor Snapp for IntraHealth International.November 26, 2019Lucy Mphuru has a big job.Every day, she and her team at IntraHealth International in Tanzania work with frontline health workers and government partners to improve health services in a country of 58 million—1.6 million of whom live ...
Source: IntraHealth International - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: HIV & AIDS Community Engagement Leadership and Governance World AIDS Day Health Workforce Systems Source Type: news
Background: Global increase of people infected with HIV (PIH) is causing changes in tuberculosis (TB) clinical and epidemiological data. HIV infection increases up to 20 times the chance of progression from latent infection to active forms of TB.Purpose: The paper aims to assess patients with TB-HIV coinfection in Olt county of Romania registered in Regional Center for Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV/AIDS of Craiova (demographics, symptoms, immunologic evaluation, TB type, TB related number of treatments) in order to identify risk factors for progression to active TB in this subset of patients.Material and Method: We perf...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
Conclusion: DNTPM in patients with advanced HIV infection is characterized by a severe immunosuppression with CD4+ CLYM less than 60 c/μl, moderately expressed clinical picture and other secondary diseases (77.8%).
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
Objective: to study features of pulmonary complications in intravenous drug users (IDUs) with and without HIV.Materials and Methods: 149 patients (111 were males, mean age - 34,6±5,2 years)- IDUs diagnosed with pneumonia who were included in the study as they admitted to the hospital. HIV infection was verified in 112 (75%). 105 (70%) patients had viral hepatitis (B, C, B+C), 70 (47%) -tuberculosis.Results: In the presence of HIV infection, especially with severe immunosuppression of CD4+
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research
In conclusion, it seems essential to implement effective educational and informative activities targeted to parents to reinforce positive attitudes toward vaccinations. PMID: 31705322 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
More News: Epidemiology | Ghana Health | Hepatitis | Hepatitis B | Hospitals | Infectious Diseases | Study | Tuberculosis