Multiplexed DIVA tests for rapid detection of FMDV infection/circulation in endemic countries.

Multiplexed DIVA tests for rapid detection of FMDV infection/circulation in endemic countries. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Dec 12;: Authors: Tewari A, Jain B, Bhatia AK Abstract Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an important transboundary disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants. Due to FMD outbreaks, the annual economic losses in endemic countries range from USD 6.1 billion to 200 billion. It also restricts the export of animals/animal by-products to FMD-free countries. FMD-free countries can experience a more severe economic loss due to the culling of infected animals as experienced by the UK in 2001 outbreaks. In endemic countries outbreaks occur mainly due to unrestricted animal movements. This creates a difficult situation in an endemic setting for controlling FMD spread to nearby areas. During post-vaccination surveillance, testing of serum samples using single test may not be able to substantiate complete freedom from infection. Thus, there is a requirement of more sensitive, robust, and accurate diagnostic tests to detect the FMDV infection/virus circulation in the vaccinated population with more accuracy than the available diagnostic tests. This can be achieved by using multiple antigens and setting the criteria for the positivity/negativity of the samples. Thus, this review emphasizes the comparison and the practical utility of the available diagnostic tests which detect antibodies against single antigen with those which detect antibodie...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

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Recent occurrences of filoviruses and the arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) in overlapping endemic areas of Africa highlight the need for a prophylactic vaccine that would confer protection against all of these viruses that cause lethal hemorrhagic fever (HF). We developed a quadrivalent formulation of VesiculoVax that contains recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vectors expressing filovirus glycoproteins and that also contains a rVSV vector expressing the glycoprotein of a lineage IV strain of LASV. Cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated twice with the quadrivalent formulation, followed by challenge 28 days after the b...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractIn Xayaboury province, located in the northern region of Lao PDR, the foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccination campaign just began in 2009. Up until now, a small number of farms have been vaccinated. When FMD outbreaks occur, it is interesting to determine the risk factors of FMD, especially in the area where vaccination rates are low. The questionnaire survey, using a case-control design at the household level, was carried out. From 59 villages with a total number of 434 households, 181 households who experienced FMD were assigned as case households, 146 households without FMD occurrence inside the outbreak villag...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
This study describes the development of a novel RT-LAMP assay for the detection of PPRV nucleic acid by targeting the N-protein gene. The RT-LAMP assay was evaluated using cell culture propagated PPRVs, field samples from clinically infected animals and samples from experimentally infected animals encompassing all four lineages (I-IV) of PPRV. The test displayed 100% concordance with RT-qPCR when considering an RT-qPCR cut-off value of CT >40. Further, the RT-LAMP assay was evaluated using experimental and outbreak samples without prior RNA extraction making it more time and cost-effective. This assay provides a sol...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Glanders is a zoonotic infection, and because of recent outbreaks among Equidae family, the possibility of its reemergence among human populations is a crisis. The causative agent is Burkholderia mallei, a Gram-negative, aerobic and highly contagious bacterium causing severe impacts with low infectious dose transmitted via direct contact to respiratory secretions, skin exudates of animals and fomite. Despite high mortality rate, no proper vaccination has been developed to hinder the infection spread. The disease is more prevalent in Australia and Southeast Asia, but has been eradicated in developed countries. Glanders&rsqu...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research
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Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a viral transboundary disease endemic throughout Africa and of high economic importance that affects cattle and domestic water buffaloes. Since 2012, the disease has spread rapidly and widely throughout the Middle Eastern and Balkan regions, southern Caucasus and parts of the Russian Federation. Before vaccination campaigns took their full effect, the disease continued spreading from region to region, mainly showing seasonal patterns despite implementing control and eradication measures. The disease is capable of appearing several hundred kilometers away from initial (focal) ou...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives The mechanisms which result in reduced viral replication and lack of disease in African wild suids after ASFV infection are largely unknown. The data so far indicate that this is not due to an intrinsic difference in the ability of the virus to replicate in macrophages from these hosts. A more likely explanation is that the innate immune system of these hosts is better able to control virus replication resulting in a reduced systemic infection and reduced pathogenesis. This may involve a balance between virus and host factors which has evolved over long term infections of these hosts. Se...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic illness caused by Lassa virus (LASV), which is endemic throughout much of West Africa. The virus primarily circulates in the Mastomys natalensis reservoir and is transmitted to humans through contact with infectious rodents or their secretions; human-to-human transmission is documented as well. With the exception of Dengue fever, LASV has the highest human impact of any haemorrhagic fever virus. On-going outbreaks in Nigeria have resulted in unprecedented mortality. Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has listed LASV as a high priority pathogen for ...
Source: Immunology Letters - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research
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