Adverse pharmacokinetic interactions between illicit substances and clinical drugs.

Adverse pharmacokinetic interactions between illicit substances and clinical drugs. Drug Metab Rev. 2019 Dec 11;:1-22 Authors: Abbott KL, Flannery PC, Gill KS, Boothe DM, Dhanasekaran M, Mani S, Pondugula SR Abstract Adverse pharmacokinetic interactions between illicit substances and clinical drugs are of a significant health concern. Illicit substances are taken by healthy individuals as well as by patients with medical conditions such as mental illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cancer. Many individuals that use illicit substances simultaneously take clinical drugs meant for targeted treatment. This concomitant usage can lead to life-threatening pharmacokinetic interactions between illicit substances and clinical drugs. Optimal levels and activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug-transporters are crucial for metabolism and disposition of illicit substances as well as clinical drugs. However, both illicit substances and clinical drugs can induce changes in the expression and/or activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug-transporters. Consequently, with concomitant usage, illicit substances can adversely influence the therapeutic outcome of coadministered clinical drugs. Likewise, clinical drugs can adversely affect the response of coadministered illicit substances. While the interactions between illicit substances and clinical drugs pose a tremendous health and financial burden, they lack a similar level of atte...
Source: Drug Metabolism Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Metab Rev Source Type: research

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Social determinants, lifestyle and diet quality: a population-based study from the 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo, Brazil. Public Health Nutr. 2019 Dec 18;:1-12 Authors: Mello AV, Pereira JL, Leme ACB, Goldbaum M, Cesar CLG, Fisberg RM Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association among social determinants, lifestyle variables and diet quality in São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo (Inquérito de Saúde de São Paulo (2015 ISA-Capital)) with Focus on Nutrition Study (2015 ISA-Nutrition). SETTING: Popul...
Source: Public Health Nutrition - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Public Health Nutr Source Type: research
Preclinical studies have suggested the antitumorigenic properties of metformin on prostate cancer; results from epidemiological studies remain contradictory. We aim to investigate the evidence of metformin and the risk of prostate cancer. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were searched for eligible studies. Meta-analyses were carried out using the most fully adjusted hazard ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Eighteen cohort studies and six case–control studies representing 2 009 504 male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified. The pooled HR of prostate ...
Source: European Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Prostate Cancer Source Type: research
Premalatha Pushpanathan, Gifty Sara Mathew, Sribal Selvarajan, Krishna G Seshadri, Padma SrikanthIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2019 37(2):268-277 Gut microbiota are microorganisms that inhabit the gut; they coexist peacefully with the host, thereby contributing to the health and well-being of individuals. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes largely dominate the gut microbial flora. The intestinal flora promotes intestinal mucosal integrity, provides essential nutrients such as vitamins and enzymes, protects the body against pathogens and produces antimicrobial peptides such as defensins, C-type lectins, cathelicidins, t...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
Background: Insulin resistance, the primary mechanism of metabolic syndrome, promotes gastric carcinogenesis. Metabolic syndrome is associated with sarcopenia. We aimed to investigate the association between sarcopenia and gastric carcinogenesis, including precancerous conditions such as atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia.Methods: The study included adult patients who underwent gastroduodenoscopy at a checkup center. AG and IM were evaluated using endoscopy. Based on muscle mass, sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Excellent overall survival was observed in TC patients. The most common cause of death was TC-specific mortality, suggesting the importance of thyroid cancer treatment. The overall and cause-specific mortality risks, particularly CVD mortality risk, did not differ between TC patients and the general population. PMID: 31721722 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Eur J Endocrinol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS This new nomogram could be conveniently used to predict the selection preference of robotic surgery for patients with pancreatic head cancer. PMID: 31654999 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
by Jenny C. Censin, Sanne A. E. Peters, Jonas Bovijn, Teresa Ferreira, Sara L. Pulit, Reedik M ägi, Anubha Mahajan, Michael V. Holmes, Cecilia M. Lindgren Obesity traits are causally implicated with risk of cardiometabolic diseases. It remains unclear whether there are similar causal effects of obesity traits on other non-communicable diseases. Also, it is largely unexplored whether there are any sex-specific differences in the causal effects of obe sity traits on cardiometabolic diseases and other leading causes of death. We constructed sex-specific genetic risk scores (GRS) for three obesity traits; body mass index...
Source: PLoS Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
Mediterranean diet: The role of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids in fish; polyphenols in fruits, vegetables, cereals, coffee, tea, cacao and wine; probiotics and vitamins in prevention of stroke, age-related cognitive decline, and Alzheimer disease. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2019 Sep 11;: Authors: Román GC, Jackson RE, Gadhia R, Román AN, Reis J Abstract The mechanisms of action of the dietary components of the Mediterranean diet are reviewed in prevention of cardiovascular disease, stroke, age-associated cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease. A companion article provides a comprehensive revi...
Source: Revue Neurologique - Category: Neurology Tags: Rev Neurol (Paris) Source Type: research
Conclusion: Polymorphisms involved in cell cycle, telomere protection and stability and DNA repair are not associated with gliomas. On the other hand, alcohol consumption and SAH stand out as independent risk factors for the disease. Low-grade gliomas, response to treatment and the combination of chemotherapy with Temozolomide and radiation therapy show increased survival of patients. PMID: 31450905 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research
no De Lorenzo Lifestyle interventions remain the first-line treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), even if the optimal alimentary regimen is still controversial. The interest in antioxidants has increased over time, and literature reports an inverse association between nutrients rich in antioxidants and the risk of mortality due to non-communicable diseases, including NAFLD. Mediterranean diet (MD) is a model characterized by main consumption of plant-based foods and fish and reduced consumption of meat and dairy products. MD represents the gold standard in preventive medicine, probably due to the har...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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