Identifying poor cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese children and adolescents by using heart rate variability analysis under resting conditions.

Conclusions: A screening tool based on heart rate variability and anthropometric parameters was developed to identify subjects with higher probability of suffering or developing cardio metabolic risk factors. PMID: 31829032 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Blood Pressure - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research

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Abstract In males, obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigate insulin, via an action in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and downstream neuropathways, including melanocortin receptor 3/4 (MC3/4R) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsal medial hypothalamus (DMH). We studied conscious and α-chloralose-anesthetized SD rats fed a high fat diet, in which obesity prone (OP) rats accrue excess fat, whereas obesity resistant (OR) rats maintain fat content like rats eating a standard control (CON) diet. Nonspecific blockade of the ArcN with...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Abstract Beige adipocytes have become a promising therapeutic target to combat obesity. Our senior author Xue previously discovered a transient but significant induction of beige adipocytes in mice during early postnatal development in mice, which peaked at postnatal day 20 (P20) and then disappeared thereafter. However, the physiological mechanism underlying the transient induction of the developmental beige cells remains mystery. Interestingly, there exists a postnatal surge of leptin in mice at postnatal day P10 prior to the appearance of the developmental beige adipocytes. Given the neurotropic effect of lepti...
Source: Am J Physiol Endocri... - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Conclusion There is a long way ahead regarding the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and as an adjunctive treatment of hypertension. Treatment of dysbiosis could be a useful therapeutic approach to add to traditional antihypertensive therapy. Manipulating gut microbiota using prebiotics and probiotics might prove a valuable tool to traditional antihypertensives.
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Tags: Review Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundEarly dumping and post-bariatric hypoglycemia (PBH) are often addressed as two separate postprandial complications after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of early dumping in RYGB-operated individuals with PBH with and without treatment intervention.MethodsEleven RYGB-operated women with documented PBH each underwent a baseline liquid mixed meal test (MMT) followed by five MMTs preceded by treatment with: acarbose 50  mg for 1 week, sitagliptin 100 mg for 1 week, verapamil 120 mg for 1 week, liraglutide 1.2 mg for 3 ...
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Abstract Purpose of Review Blood pressure regulation in health and disease involves a balance between afferent and efferent signals from multiple organs and tissues. Although there are numerous reviews focused on the role of sympathetic nerves in different models of hypertension, few have revised the contribution of afferent nerves innervating adipose tissue and their role in the development of obesity-induced hypertension. Recent Findings Both clinical and basic research supports the beneficial effects of bilateral renal denervation in lowering blood pressure. However, recent studies revealed that afferent signal...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
In this study, the impact of prenatal infection (PNI), using a naturally occurring rodent pathogen, Mycoplasma pulmonis (MP), on adult body weight and cardiovascular function was evaluated. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were infected with MP on gestational day 14 and gave birth naturally. Adult PNI offspring of weighed more than controls, but resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was unchanged. Subcutaneous injection of angiotensin II (Ang II; 10 μg/kg) elicited a rise in MAP that was greater in both male and female PNI offspring compared to controls (P
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) contribution to long-term setting of blood pressure (BP) and hence hypertension has been a continuing controversy over many decades. However, the contribution of increased sympathetic vasomotor tone to the heart, kidney, and blood vessels has been suggested as a major influence on the development of high BP which affects 30–40% of the population. This is relevant to hypertension associated with chronic stress, being overweight or obese as well to chronic kidney disease. Treatments that have attempted to block the peripheral aspects of the SNS contribution have included surgery to ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
AbstractConclusive evidence demonstrates that the sympathetic nervous system activation is a hallmark of congestive heart failure. This has been shown via a variety of biochemical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging approaches for studying human sympathetic neural function. The sympathetic activation appears to be an early phenomenon in the clinical course of the disease, closely related to its severity and potentiated by the concomitant presence of other comorbidities, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and renal failure. The adrenergic overdrive in heart failure is associated with oth...
Source: Heart Failure Reviews - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Abstract Increases in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) have been implicated in obesity-induced risk for cardiovascular diseases, especially hypertension. Previous studies indicate that oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key brainstem region that regulates sympathetic outflow to peripheral tissues, plays a pathogenic role in obesity-mediated sympathoexcitation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not clear. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory genes an...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
ConclusionsThese results reveal a specific role of BDNF promoter I in thermogenesis regulation and define a small subset of neurons in LH that contribute to such regulation.
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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