Exercise Training Modulates Gut Microbiota Profile and Improves Endotoxemia

Introduction Intestinal metabolism and microbiota profiles are impaired in obesity and insulin resistance. Moreover, dysbiotic gut microbiota has been suggested to promote systemic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance through the release of endotoxins particularly lipopolysaccharides. We have previously shown that exercise training improves intestinal metabolism in healthy men. To understand whether changes in intestinal metabolism interact with gut microbiota and its release of inflammatory markers, we studied the effects of sprint interval (SIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on intestinal metabolism and microbiota in subjects with insulin resistance. Methods Twenty-six, sedentary subjects (prediabetic, n = 9; type 2 diabetes, n = 17; age, 49 [SD, 4] yr; body mass index, 30.5 [SD, 3]) were randomized into SIT or MICT. Intestinal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) and fatty acid uptake (FAU) from circulation were measured using positron emission tomography. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serum inflammatory markers with multiplex assays and enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Results V˙O2peak improved only after SIT (P = 0.01). Both training modes reduced systematic and intestinal inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, lipopolysaccharide binding protein) (time P
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

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Conclusions/interpretationIn individuals with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes on stable-dose metformin therapy, the changes in body composition with semaglutide and canagliflozin were not significantly different. Although numerical improvements in body composition were observed following treatment in both treatment arms, the specific impact of both treatments on body composition in the absence of a placebo arm is speculative at this stage.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT03136484.FundingThis trial was supported by Novo Nordisk A/S, Denmark.
Source: Diabetologia - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Obesity rates have nearly doubled in the last 20 years. Only in England, 13 million people over the age of 16 were considered obese in 2017, Daily Mail reported. According to an analysis of government data, the NHS spent a staggering £1.075 billion on type 2 diabetes treatment alone. And since obesity is linked to cardiovascular problems, diabetes, and some cancers, most of us live in countries where obesity kills more people than malnutrition. It’s preventable. It’s treatable. And yet numbers keep rising. So, what’s happening and what’s the solution? Let’s get digital! Ok, we may ...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine Health Sensors & Trackers digital health digital technology digital health sensors weight management obesity weight loss Source Type: blogs
The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between T2D duration and the chance of achieving remission of T2D after bariatric surgery. Methods and findingsWe conducted a nationwide register-based cohort study including all adult patients with T2D and BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 who received primary bariatric surgery in Sweden between 2007 and 2015 identified through the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry. The main outcome was remission of T2D, defined as being free from diabetes medication or as complete remission (HbA1c
Source: PLoS Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractThe accurate 3D reconstruction of organs from radiological scans is an essential tool in computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) and plays a critical role in clinical, biomedical and forensic science research. The structure and shape of the organ, combined with morphological measurements such as volume and curvature, can provide significant guidance towards establishing progression or severity of a condition, and thus support improved diagnosis and therapy planning. Furthermore, the classification and stratification of organ abnormalities aim to explore and investigate organ deformations following injury, trauma and illnes...
Source: Journal of Medical Systems - Category: Information Technology Source Type: research
ConclusionThese results indicate that enhanced brain insulin signaling transduction and brain glucose utilization play important roles in the antidiabetic effect of DJB.
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
The conditions of human life began to improve with the Enlightenment of the 18th century, and we are better off now by many measures: food access, health, lifespan, and so on. But it hasn’t been an unbroken line of advancement. In the last three decades, U.S. death rates have risen steeply from suicide and compulsive consumption of alcohol and drugs, which Princeton University professors Anne Case and Angus Deaton famously termed “deaths of despair.” Exceeding these deaths of despair by tenfold are rising deaths from type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease—caused significantly by c...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Addiction diabetes Mental Health/Psychology neuroscience Source Type: news
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is tied to the rise in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Bariatric endoscopic interventions may provide an option to treat patients but there is scant data at present evaluating the effects on liver disease and diabetes.
Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases - Category: Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Drug Discovery Today - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Drug Discov Today Source Type: research
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is commonly associated with abdominal obesity, predominantly with high visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and is accompanied by premature atherosclerosis. However, the association between VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) with premature atherosclerosis and (i.e. arterial) inflammation is not completely understood. To provide more insight into this association, we investigated the association between arterial 18F-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) uptake, as a measure of arterial inflammation, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) markers in early T2DM patients.
Source: Atherosclerosis - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
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