Palmitic Acid Induces MicroRNA-221 Expression to Decrease Glucose Uptake in HepG2 Cells via the PI3K/AKT/GLUT4 Pathway.

In this study, palmitic acid (PA, 0.8 mM for 24 h) induced the expression of miR-221 that bound to phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) mRNA to inhibit glucose uptake by HepG2 cells. Compared with controls, PA significantly decreased glucose uptake, increased insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) and miR-221 expression, and decreased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT), and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) mRNA expression. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-221 binding inhibited PI3K expression. Transfection of HepG2 cells with an miR-221 mimic induced miR-221 expression and inhibited the PI3K/AKT pathway. PA decreased glucose uptake in HepG2 cells by inducing the expression of miR-221, which bound to PI3K mRNA and suppressed PI3K/AKT signaling. miR-221 may be a novel target for preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin resistance. PMID: 31828133 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most prevalent endocrine diseases in the world. Recent studies have shown that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota may be an important contributor to T2DM pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the roles of the gut microbiome and fecal metabolome in T2DM have not been characterized. Recently, the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat model of T2DM was developed to study the clinical symptoms and characteristics of human T2DM. To further characterize T2DM pathogenesis, we combined multi-omics techniques, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomic sequencing, and metabolomics, to ana...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
We reported a significant increase of ghrelin epsilon-cells in the pancreas and basal serum after Sleeve gastrectomy versus the control groups. The epsilon cellular increment was related to neogenesis, as the neurogenin-3 marker revealed. The Roux-en Y Gastric Bypass showed neither epsilon cell increase nor basal serum changes in ghrelin release. As a conclusion, we reported that the severe suppression of the fundus gastric produced the recovery of ghrelin released by the epsilon cells, which was indicative of an ontogenic embryonic pancreatic function. PMID: 31951010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Histology and Histopathology - Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research
Indigenous populations worldwide have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D),[1] and early age of onset.[2] The causes of increased rates of T2D are likely multiple and complex. However, social determinants of health appear to be associated with differences in prevalence across populations, including in youth.[3] The prevalence of T2D is directly related to the prevalence of obesity which is also influenced by social determinants of health. Understanding the relationship between social determinants of health and neonatal adiposity may inform early life interventions to improve metabolic health.
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the irisin levels in elderly patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, and overweight and obesity, to investigate the possible association between irisin levels and anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and also to assess the irisin levels associated with a risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, and overweight and obesity.MethodsA nested case-control study was conducted, with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, and overweight and obesity being set as the case group; 71 elderly patients from the cohort were enrolled in each case group, and 71 healthy elderly from...
Source: International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
This study aims to understand the progression of two chronic diseases in the Australian health context. It specifically focuses on the comorbidity progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as the prevalence of these chronic diseases in Australians is high. A research framework is proposed to understand and represent the progression of CVD in patients with T2DM using graph theory and social network analysis techniques. Two study cohorts (i.e., patients with both T2DM and CVD and patients with only T2DM) were selected from an administrative dataset obtained from an Australi...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated casein kinase 2 alpha 1 (CSNK2A1) gene and protein expression in the liver tissues of mice at different ages (4, 16, and 32 weeks) using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our data paved the way for exploring BKS.Cg- Dock7m +/+ Leprdb/JNarl in the mouse model by demonstrating a significant increase in gene and protein expression in T2DM (+Leprdb/+Leprdb) mouse liver when compared to control (+Dock7m/+Dock7m) mouse liver. We also observed that CSNK2A1 protein level in the serum of T2DM patient group ...
Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Medical Journal Armed Forces IndiaAuthor(s): Rajvir BhalwarAbstractMetabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of specific risk factors, namely, central obesity, raised blood pressure, impaired fasting glucose, raised triglycerides, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). This constellation is triggered by insulin resistance and its resultant hyperinsulinemia. The two most important and universally agreed causes of insulin resistance are increased body fat (particularly central obesity) and physical inactivity. Other causes include certain gene...
Source: Medical Journal Armed Forces India - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Conditions:   Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Obese;   Inflammation;   Metabolic Disease;   Glucose Metabolism Disorders (Including Diabetes Mellitus) Intervention:   Drug: Anakinra Prefilled Syringe Sponsor:   University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
In conclusion, our study showed the risk of the assessed variants for the development of T2DM in the Saudi population.
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Source: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy Source Type: research
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