Bidirectional Associations among Nicotine and Tobacco Smoke, NeuroHIV, and Antiretroviral Therapy

AbstractPeople living with HIV (PLWH) in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era may lose more life-years to tobacco use than to HIV. Yet, smoking rates are more than twice as high among PLWH than the general population, contributing not just to mortality but to other adverse health outcomes, including neurocognitive deficits (neuroHIV). There is growing evidence that synergy with chronic inflammation and immune dysregulation that persists despite ART may be one mechanism by which tobacco smoking contributes to neuroHIV. This review will summarize the differential effects of nicotine vs tobacco smoking on inflammation in addition to the effects of tobacco smoke components on HIV disease progression. We will also discuss biomarkers of inflammation via neuroimaging as well as biomarkers of nicotine dependence (e.g., nicotine metabolite ratio). Tobacco smoking and nicotine may impact ART drug metabolism and conversely, certain ARTs may impact nicotine metabolism. Thus, we will review these bidirectional relationships and how they may contribute to neuroHIV and other adverse outcomes. We will also discuss the effects of tobacco use on the interaction between peripheral organs (lungs, heart, kidney) and subsequent CNS function in the context of HIV. Lastly, given the dramatic rise in the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems, we will discuss the implications of vaping on these processes. Despite the growing recognition of the importance of addressing tobacco use among PLWH, mor...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Authors: Conwell Y PMID: 31964547 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry Source Type: research
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Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Correction Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Rodríguez-Rodríguez V, Pérez-Garín D, Recio-Saboya P, Rico-Gómez A Abstract During the economic crisis, developed countries have experienced financial fraud, with effects on the physical and mental health of the people affected, and on social domains. Based on the theoretical framework in literature reviews and in quantitative studies, this paper aims to obtain evidence on the effects of financial fraud on health and on the family and social environments of those affected. An intentional sample of 32 people affected by abusive and multi-currency mortgages, preferred and s...
Source: Gaceta Sanitaria - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Gac Sanit Source Type: research
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Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Category: American Health Tags: Injury Prevention MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Suicide Source Type: news
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Source: The Physician and Sportsmedicine Online - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Phys Sportsmed Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine - Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Alloys and Compounds - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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Source: RSC - Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
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