The nature and nurture of ADHD and its comorbidities: a narrative review on twin studies

Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Naomi Tistarelli, Corrado Fagnani, Miriam Troianiello, Maria Antonietta Stazi, Walter AdrianiAbstractAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children worldwide, and also the recognition of its persistence into adulthood is increasing. While ADHD in childhood is highly heritable and mostly driven by familial factors, during adulthood it appears to show a lower heritability, even if there is not total agreement on this yet. This disorder often co-occurs with many other conditions, which also vary across the different stages of development, and several studies have used the twin design to investigate these comorbidities, giving valuable insights into the origins of the observed co-occurrence. This review aims to summarize the main results of twin research, according to the following domains: individual traits, cognitive impairment, behavioral manifestations, clinical conditions and psychosocial risk factors. Individual features seem to play a role in this symptomatology and include personality traits such as negative emotionality, personality disorders and temperamental dimensions with a predominance of novelty seeking. At a lower level, ADHD is associated with both functional and anatomic brain characteristics. ADHD is also associated with some forms of cognitive impairment, such as sluggish cognitive tempo, and learning...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Publication date: October 2020Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 89Author(s): Xiaoqin Liu, Trine Munk-Olsen, Clara Albiñana, Bjarni J. Vilhjálmsson, Emil M. Pedersen, Vivi Schlünssen, Marie Bækvad-Hansen, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Merete Nordentoft, Anders D. Børglum, Thomas Werge, David M. Hougaard, Preben B. Mortensen, Esben Agerbo
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Subcortical gray-matter structures are involved in the neurodegenerative process of ALS before cognitive impairment becomes evident. PMID: 33029965 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In PracticeAuthor(s): Manuel Jorge Rial, Marcela Valverde, Victoria del Pozo, Francisco Javier González-Barcala, Carlos Martínez-Rivera, Xavier Muñoz, José María Olaguibel, Vicente Plaza, Elena Curto, Santiago Quirce, Pilar Barranco, Javier Domínguez-Ortega, Joaquin Mullol, César Picado, Antonio Valero, Irina Bobolea, Ebymar Arismendi, Paula Ribó, Joaquín Sastre
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: It appears that the knee OA pain and disability can be decreased after a dual-frequency LLLT applied to acupoints (SP9, SP10, and EX-LE2). The clinical efficacy of LLLT is highly related to the therapeutic settings of the laser apparatus; hence, more clinical trials with diffident parameter settings are needed to be further clarified. PMID: 33029170 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Purpose of Study: Explore the perceptions of primary care physicians (PCPs) from community health care centers (CHCs) in Franklin County, Ohio, regarding factors that contribute to their inability to consistently provide sustainable asthma management services to their uninsured patient population. Primary Practice Setting: Asthmatic patients are not consistently receiving sustainable asthma management in CHCs in Ohio. Primary care physicians in CHCs play a pivotal role in closing health care gaps for asthmatic patients. To minimize the barriers that impede the efforts of PCPs to control asthma for their uninsured pati...
Source: Professional Case Management - Category: Health Management Tags: Articles Source Type: research
Frailty and falls are the main causes of morbidity and disability in elderly people. The Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test has been proposed as an appropriate method for evaluating elderly individuals' risk of falling. To analyze the TUG's potential for falls pre...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Elder Adults Source Type: news
BACKGROUND: Falls in later life that require admission to hospital have well-established consequences for future disability and health. The likelihood and severity of a fall will result from the presence of one or more risk factors. The aim of this study i...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Elder Adults Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Osamu Matsuno, Seijiro Minamoto
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2020Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Francesco Menzella, Patrizia Ruggiero, Carla Galeone, Chiara Scelfo, Diego Bagnasco, Nicola Facciolongo
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2020Source: The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 71Author(s): Angelle Cook
Source: Arts in Psychotherapy - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
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