The nature and nurture of ADHD and its comorbidities: a narrative review on twin studies

Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Naomi Tistarelli, Corrado Fagnani, Miriam Troianiello, Maria Antonietta Stazi, Walter AdrianiAbstractAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children worldwide, and also the recognition of its persistence into adulthood is increasing. While ADHD in childhood is highly heritable and mostly driven by familial factors, during adulthood it appears to show a lower heritability, even if there is not total agreement on this yet. This disorder often co-occurs with many other conditions, which also vary across the different stages of development, and several studies have used the twin design to investigate these comorbidities, giving valuable insights into the origins of the observed co-occurrence. This review aims to summarize the main results of twin research, according to the following domains: individual traits, cognitive impairment, behavioral manifestations, clinical conditions and psychosocial risk factors. Individual features seem to play a role in this symptomatology and include personality traits such as negative emotionality, personality disorders and temperamental dimensions with a predominance of novelty seeking. At a lower level, ADHD is associated with both functional and anatomic brain characteristics. ADHD is also associated with some forms of cognitive impairment, such as sluggish cognitive tempo, and learning...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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ABSTRACT: Objectives: To estimate the magnitude of gender differences in disability among adults aged 60 and older and to evaluate whether they can be associated with social gender inequality and socioeconomic contextual factors at the level of Brazilian federative units. Methods: This is a multilevel study that used data from 23,575 older adults of 27 federative units who participated in the 2013 Brazilian Health Survey. The activity limitation index was developed from the item response theory, using activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living variables. The association of individual and context...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Molecular Genetics and MetabolismAuthor(s): Gabriella A. Horvath, Robert M. Stowe, Carlos R. Ferreira, Nenad BlauAbstractPsychiatric symptoms are common manifestations in many inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), ranging from attention deficit, anxiety and mood and behavioral disorders to psychosis. Furthermore, IEMs represent a significant percentage of all autism cases. We reviewed and updated the list of metabolic disorders known to be associated with various psychiatric manifestations and found more than 100 relevant IEMs. This represents the third of a series o...
Source: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: June 2020Source: Meta Gene, Volume 24Author(s): Fatemeh Beiranvandi, Mansoureh Akouchekian, Gholam Reza Javadi, Hossein DarvishAbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopment disease characterized by impaired social interactions, communication deficits, restricted interests, stereotyped and repetitive behaviors, which results from the interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. Our study was aimed to explore the association between CNTNAP2 gene polymorphism (rs2710102 C/T) and ENGRAILED-2 (EN2) (rs1861972 A/G) with the risk of autism in the Iranian po...
Source: Meta Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
ConclusionOrganisational factors of safety climate, disability management and labour management processes appear to be associated with work injury and location of work within this workplace. The role of organisational factors should be considered in future studies examining interventions aimed at addressing work injury.
Source: Safety Science - Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research
ConclusionsFitness tracker sleep efficiency and wake counts demonstrate clinical utility as predictive of asthma-specific night-time wakening and daily FEV1. Fitness tracker sleep data demonstrated predictive capability for daily asthma outcomes.
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of School Psychology, Volume 78Author(s): Christine K. Malecki, Michelle K. Demaray, Thomas J. Smith, Jonathan EmmonsAbstractUsing a stigma-based bullying framework, the current study investigated how (a) disability status was related to bullying-related behaviors when controlling for gender, grade level, and free or reduced lunch status; (b) gender, grade level, and free or reduced lunch status moderated the associations of disability status with bullying-related behaviors; and (c) classification in specific disability categories was associated with bullying-related behaviors...
Source: Journal of School Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: Orthopaedics &Traumatology: Surgery &ResearchAuthor(s): Ruipeng Zhang, Yingchao Yin, Shilun Li, Zhiyong Hou, Lin Jin, Yingze ZhangAbstractIntroductionThere has been great progress in surgical techniques for treating humeral shaft fractures over the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to compare the therapeutic effects of intramedullary nailing (IMN) and locking compression plate (LCP) for humeral shaft fractures (AO/OTA 12-A and B).HypothesisCompared with LCP, better therapeutic effects could be obtained with less invasive IMN.Materials and meth...
Source: Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a seronegative inflammatory disease that progressively affects the spine and sacroiliac joints and is more common in men with the B 27 human leucocyte antigen. This leads to inflammation, synovitis and, eventually, secondary arthritis in the hips of those affected. Hips of those affected are often completely ankylosed at time of presentation to the orthopedic surgeon. Total hip arthroplasty offers a stable mobile hip for patients who are functionally disabled due to their debilitating disease. As disease progresses, the native hip anatomy, which is familiar to orthopedic surgeon in routine to...
Source: Techniques in Orthopaedics - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Special Technical Articles Source Type: research
Conclusion: SES and race may influence affective symptoms reported by individuals with MS. The reasons for the correlation are likely multifactorial. Longitudinal studies should strive to identify factors associated with risk of affective symptoms in MS that may be modifiable.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: April 2020Source: Epilepsy &Behavior, Volume 105Author(s): Gagandeep Singh, Josemir W. SanderAbstractThe Global Burden of Epilepsy Report estimates that there are 13 million disability adjusted life years due to epilepsy each year. Estimates of years lived with disability attributed to uncontrolled and untreated epilepsies are particularly raised in comparison to controlled epilepsies in countries with low sociodemographic indices. There are 50 million people with epilepsy in the world and of these, 125,000 die each year, and over 80% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Overall,...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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