Mathematical Models for Possible Roles of Oxytocin and Oxytocin Receptors in Autism.

Mathematical Models for Possible Roles of Oxytocin and Oxytocin Receptors in Autism. Comput Math Methods Med. 2019;2019:7308197 Authors: Gottlieb MM Abstract This paper develops mathematical models examining possible roles of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in the development of autism. This is done by demonstrating that mathematical operations on normalized data from the Stanford study, which establishes a correspondence between severity of autism in children and their oxytocin blood levels, generate a graph that is the same as the graph of mathematical operations on a normalized theoretical model for the severity of autism. This procedure establishes the validity of the theoretical model and the significance of oxytocin receptors in autism. A steady-state model follows, explaining the constant baseline concentrations of oxytocin observed in the cerebral spinal fluid and blood in terms of the neuromodulation by oxytocin of oxytocin receptors on the magnocellular neurons that produce oxytocin in nuclei in the hypothalamus. The implications of these models for possible roles of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in autism are considered for several unrelated conditions that may be associated with autism. These are oxytocin receptor desensitization and downregulation as factors during labor in offspring autism development; reductions in the oxytocin receptor numbers in the fixed oxytocin receptor expression that occurs before birth; MAST Immune System disease;...
Source: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine - Category: Statistics Tags: Comput Math Methods Med Source Type: research

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Conclusions: The approach of reprograming case-parent tr ios represents a possibility of investigating disease-causing mutations and comparing cell lines with reduced variation in genetic background. Our results are indicative of an overlap between schizophrenia and autism-related phenotypes in the investigated family.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Authors: Larijani B, Foroughi Heravani N, Alavi-Moghadam S, Goodarzi P, Rezaei-Tavirani M, Payab M, Gholami M, Razi F, Arjmand B Abstract Autism spectrum disorders as a group of pediatric neurodevelopmental diseases is a crucial part of the worldwide disabilities which have influence in communication skills, social interactions, and ability to understand the concepts. The precise pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders due to the abundance of involved mechanisms is unknown. Some of these involved mechanisms are related to genetic factors, chronic neuro inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress,...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
AbstractTuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by epilepsy, intellectual disability, and benign tumors of the brain, heart, skin, and kidney. Animal models have contributed to our understanding of normal and abnormal human brain development, but the construction of models that accurately recapitulate a human pathology remains challenging. Recent advances in stem cell biology with the derivation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from somatic cells from patients have opened new avenues to the study of TSC. This approach combined with gene-editing tools such as CRISPR/C...
Source: Molecular Autism - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are multifaceted pathologic conditions manifested with intellectual disability, autistic features, psychiatric problems, motor dysfunction, and/or genetic/chromosomal abnormalities. They are associated with skewed neurogenesis and brain development, in part through dysfunction of the neural stem cells (NSCs) where abnormal transcriptional regulation on key genes play significant roles. Recent accumulated evidence highlights C2H2-type zinc finger proteins (C2H2-ZNFs), the largest transcription factor family in humans, as important targets for the pathologic processes associated with NDDs....
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: 11 February 2020Source: Cell Reports, Volume 30, Issue 6Author(s): Caroline Alayne Pearson, Destaye M. Moore, Haley O. Tucker, Joseph D. Dekker, Hui Hu, Amaya Miquelajáuregui, Bennett G. NovitchSummaryThe laminar architecture of the mammalian neocortex depends on the orderly generation of distinct neuronal subtypes by apical radial glia (aRG) during embryogenesis. Here, we identify critical roles for the autism risk gene Foxp1 in maintaining aRG identity and gating the temporal competency for deep-layer neurogenesis. Early in development, aRG express high levels of Foxp1 mRNA and protein, whic...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
A UCLA-led study reveals a new role for a gene that ’s associated with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability and language impairment.The gene, Foxp1, has previously been studied for its function in the neurons of the developing brain. But the new study reveals that it ’s also important in a group of brain stem cells — the precursors to mature neurons.“This discovery really broadens the scope of where we think Foxp1 is important,” said Bennett Novitch, a member of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA and the senior author ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Siniscalco Neurodevelopmental lifelong pathologies defined by problems with social interaction, communication capacity and presence of repetitive/stereotyped clusters of behavior and interests are grouped under the definition of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD prevalence is still increasing, indicating the need to identify specific biomarkers and novel pharmacotherapies. Neuroinflammation and neuro-immune cross-talk dysregulation are specific hallmarks of ASD, offering the possibility of treating these disorders by stem cell therapy. Indeed, cellular strategies have been postulated, proposed and applied to ASD. Ho...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
(Salk Institute) Researchers at the Salk Institute have discovered a unique pattern of DNA damage that arises in brain cells derived from individuals with a macrocephalic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The observation, published in the journal Cell Stem Cell, helps explain what might go awry in the brain during cell division and development to cause the disorder.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Contributor : Meiyan WangSeries Type : OtherOrganism : Homo sapiensThe association between macrocephaly and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)suggests that the mechanisms underlying excessive neural growth could contribute to ASD pathogenesis. Consistently, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of ASD individuals with early developmental brain enlargement are inherently more proliferative than control NPCs. Here, we show that hiPSC-derived NPCs from ASD individuals with macrocephaly display an altered DNA replication program and increased DNA damage. When compared to the control NPC...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Other Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Contributor : Meiyan WangSeries Type : OtherOrganism : Homo sapiensThe association between macrocephaly and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)suggests that the mechanisms underlying excessive neural growth could contribute to ASD pathogenesis. Consistently, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of ASD individuals with early developmental brain enlargement are inherently more proliferative than control NPCs. Here, we show that hiPSC-derived NPCs from ASD individuals with macrocephaly display an altered DNA replication program and increased DNA damage. When compared to the control NPC...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Other Homo sapiens Source Type: research
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