Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 2009: Immunotherapy for Multiple Myeloma

Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 2009: Immunotherapy for Multiple Myeloma Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers11122009 Authors: Tamura Ishibashi Sunakawa Inokuchi Despite therapeutic advances over the past decades, multiple myeloma (MM) remains a largely incurable disease with poor prognosis in high-risk patients, and thus new treatment strategies are needed to achieve treatment breakthroughs. MM represents various forms of impaired immune surveillance characterized by not only disrupted antibody production but also immune dysfunction of T, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells, although immunotherapeutic interventions such as allogeneic stem-cell transplantation and dendritic cell-based tumor vaccines were reported to prolong survival in limited populations of MM patients. Recently, epoch-making immunotherapies, i.e., immunomodulatory drug-intensified monoclonal antibodies, such as daratumumab combined with lenalidomide and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy targeting B-cell maturation antigen, have been developed, and was shown to improve prognosis even in advanced-stage MM patients. Clinical trials using other antibody-based treatments, such as antibody drug-conjugate and bispecific antigen-directed CD3 T-cell engager targeting, are ongoing. The manipulation of anergic T-cells by checkpoint inhibitors, including an anti-T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domains (TIGIT) antibody, also has the potential to prolong survival times. Those new treatments or their combina...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) New research has uncovered the previously unknown presence of CD19 -- a B cell molecule targeted by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy to treat leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma -- in brain cells that protect the blood brain barrier (BBB). This discovery may potentially be the cause for neurotoxicity in patients undergoing CD19 directed CAR T cell immunotherapy, according to the research team led by Avery Posey, PhD, an assistant professor of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Anna Rita Cappello Catia Morelli A mesoporous silica-based nanodevice bearing the antineoplastic drug bortezomib (BTZ), whose release is triggered in acidic environment and grafted with folic acid (FOL) as a targeting function (FOL-MSN-BTZ) was tested on folate receptor overexpressing (FR+) multiple myeloma (MM) cells and on FR negative (FR−) normal cells. FOL-MSN-BTZ efficacy studies were conducted by means of growth experiments, TEM, TUNEL assay and Western Blotting analysis (WB). Metabolic investigations were performed to assess cells metabolic response to MSNs treatments. FOL-MSN-BTZ exclusively kille...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
(RCSI) By combining genomic testing and next generation sequencing technology, a new partnership led by RCSI researchers aims to advance predictive tests for multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common blood cancer in Ireland.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
The COVID-19 pandemic has proven to have significant morbidity and mortality in high risk patient populations including those with cancer. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an indolent disease and the majority of patients with CLL are under monitoring. Here we present a case of a CLL patient with severe COVID-19 presenting with marked lymphocytosis within 2-3 days of diagnosis. An 80-years old man with treatment na ïve CLL was admitted to our hospital for COVID-19 pneumonia. He was intubated due to hypoxic respiratory failure and developed multi-system organ failure requiring hemodialysis and vasopressor therapy.
Source: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
ConclusionThere is variation in who is responsible for the protocol and interpretation of WBMRI, as well as how the exam is performed and how the exam is coded, which raise barriers to broad implementation. Recent WBMRI guidelines for multiple myeloma and prostate cancer can mitigate many of these barriers, but they do not address the coding and reimbursement challenges. Collaborative multi-society development of a new CPT ® code for WBMRI may be a worthwhile endeavor.
Source: Skeletal Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Authors: Gnagnarella P, Raimondi S, Aristarco V, Johansson HA, Bellerba F, Corso F, Gandini S Abstract Increasing scientific evidence supports the link between vitamin D and cancer risk. The active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D exerts its activity by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), an intracellular receptor that mediates transcriptional activation and repression of target genes. The binding of 1,25(OH)2D to VDR is able to regulate hundreds of different genes. VDR is active in virtually all tissues including the colon, breast, lung, ovary, bone, kidney, parathyroid gland, pancreatic b-cells, monocytes, T lymphocyte...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
AbstractMultiple myeloma (MM) is diagnosed and monitored by correlating panel of test results including serum Protein electrophoresis (SPE), Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE), serum Free Light chain (sFLC) measurements. This audit is aimed to evaluate the prevalence of non-correlation and discrepancies amongst the three investigations (SPE/IFE/sFLC) for assessment of MM. 106 MM patients were reviewed over 16  months in a tertiary cancer care center by the availability of 3 serum test results (SPE/IFE/sFLC). Patients were divided into 2 groups: group1, newly diagnosed MM patients who were yet to receive myeloma spec...
Source: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
PMID: 32934030 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These data support a potential mechanism for enhanced immune-mediated cytotoxicity in which DARA-mediated NK cell diminution is partially offset by POM effects on the remaining NK cell pool. Further, DARA antimyeloma activity and elimination of CD38+ T cells (regulatory/activated) provides a rationale for therapeutic combination with direct tumoricidal activity and immunomodulation of POM-directed T cell enhancements. These data highlight enhancements in immune subpopulations for the combination of DARA with POM and potentially with next generation cereblon-targeting agents. PMID: 32928795 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
Although bortezomib as one of the first line medicines that has greatly improved the overall survival of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), undesired drug resistance is frequently observed. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to be able to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in many cancer types. The aim of the present study was to further evaluate the anticancer activity of DHA and EPA in relation to bortezomib chemosensitivity in human MM cells.
Source: Clinical Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
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