Mast Cell Biology at Molecular Level: a Comprehensive Review

AbstractMast cells (MCs) are portions of the innate and adaptive immune system derived from bone marrow (BM) progenitors that are rich in cytoplasmic granules. MC maturation, phenotype, and function are determined by their microenvironment. MCs accumulate at inflammatory sites associated with atopy, wound healing, and malignancies. They interact with the external environment and are predominantly located in close proximity of blood vessels and sensory nerves. MCs are key initiators and modulators of allergic, anaphylactic, and other inflammatory reactions, by induction of vasodilation, promoting of vascular permeability, recruitment of inflammatory cells, facilitation of adaptive immune responses, and modulation of angiogenesis, and fibrosis. They express a wide range of receptors, e.g., for IgE (Fc εRI), IgG (FcγR), stem cell factor (SCF) (KIT receptor or CD117), complement (including C5aR), and cytokines, that upon activation trigger various signaling pathways. The final consequence of such ligand receptor–based activation of MCs is the release of a broad array of mediators which are clas sified in three categories. While some mediators are preformed and remain stored in granules such as heparin, histamine, and enzymes mainly chymase and tryptase, others are de novo synthesized only after activation including LTB4, LTD4, PDG2, and PAF, and the cytokines IL-10, IL-8, IL-5, IL-3, IL-1, GM-CSF, TGF-β, VEGF, and TNF-α. Depending on the stimulus, M...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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This article provides highlights of the clinically impactful original studies and reviews published in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice in 2019 on the subjects of anaphylaxis, asthma, dermatitis, drug allergy, food allergy, immunodeficiency, immunotherapy, rhinitis/sinusitis, and urticaria/angioedema/mast cell disorders. Within each topic, practical aspects of diagnosis and management are emphasized. Treatments discussed include lifestyle modifications, allergen avoidance therapy, positive and negative effects of pharmacologic therapy, and various forms of immunologic and desensitization manageme...
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
We have prepared a case that highlights the relationship between a patient ’s emotional state and the potential for systemic allergic reactions including anaphylaxis in a heretofore stable patient receiving maintenance subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) for treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) and mild persistent asthma.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Challenging Clinical Cases Source Type: research
Hey guys, had a patient with sulfa/sulfonamides allergy who I dispensed Meloxicam. Pt states that sulfa is in meloxicam structure so she is having anaphylactic reaction due to taking Meloxicam 8 hours earlier I checked Lexicom/Clinical pharmacology, and I just cant find it being as contraindication... Of course, pt is threatening to go to a hospital/sue/etc... Am I overlooking it as a contraindication? Can you guys double check me?
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Pharmacy Source Type: forums
This study aimed to identify the phenotype and immunologic findings in Korean children with barley allergy. METHODS: Forty-two participants with a history of ingesting barley who underwent serum specific immunoglobulin E to barley (barley-sIgE) assay at the Department of Pediatrics in Ajou Medical Center were enrolled through a retrospective analysis of medical records from March 2008 to February 2018. The demographic characteristics, symptoms, and immunologic parameters of the patients were assessed. RESULTS: Twenty subjects presented with clinical barley allergy (B-allergic group), and 22 were atopic controls w...
Source: J Korean Med Sci - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: J Korean Med Sci Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBiologic agents are new treatment options for chronic inflammatory diseases and cancers. As a result of their unique mechanism of action, they are more effective and less toxic treatment option and their clinical usage is increasing. While they are more commonly used, various adverse effects have been observed including life-threatening ones, including anaphylaxis. The aim of this review is to distinguish the anaphylaxis from other hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) and provide a management algorithm for the anaphylactic reactions induced by biological agents.Recent FindingsMany case reports and seri...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In PracticeAuthor(s): Matthew S. Krantz, Yiwei Liu, Elizabeth J. Phillips, Cosby A. Stone
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions. Although there was no increase in Api m10 sIgG4 levels after 1 year bVIT, we did not observe relevant differences in other outcomes between patients with predominant Api m1 or Api m10 sensitization. PMID: 31939631 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Volume 8, Issue 1Author(s): Lisa M. Bartnikas, Scott H. Sicherer
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Volume 8, Issue 1Author(s): Ru-Xin Foong, Paul J. Turner, Adam T. Fox
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy (PA) affects ∼1.6 million US children. The current standard of care is strict avoidance and prompt reaction treatment. PA healthcare costs and healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To estimate PA healthcare costs and HCRU using a nationally representative commercial payer database. METHODS: The IBM MarketScan ® Commercial Claims and Encounters Database was examined for PA diagnosis/reaction codes between January 2011 and October 2015 in patients ≤64 years, with age cohort-matched controls. Outcomes were measured 12 months b...
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol Source Type: research
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