Current Management of Urinary Tract Infection and Vesicoureteral Reflux

AbstractUrinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as the growth of a significant number of microorganisms of a single species in the urine, in the presence of symptoms. Symptoms in young children are non-specific such as fever without focus; young infants may manifest with irritability, failure to thrive, jaundice, vomiting and diarrhea. Older children usually have symptoms of cystitis or pyelonephritis. Symptoms of cystitis are dysuria, frequency, new onset incontinence and malodorous urine while symptoms of pyelonephritis are high grade fever, flank pain and vomiting. Rapid urine testing by microscopy for pus cells, dipstick testing for leukocyte esterase and nitrite, and enhanced urinalysis are supportive tests. Urine culture samples should be collected with proper technique and results interpreted for significant growth accordingly. Antibiotic therapy for 7 –14 d for complicated UTI and 3–4 d for uncomplicated UTI is adequate. Further evaluation is recommended clinically for bladder-bowel dysfunction and obvious anatomical defects and by imaging for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), usually by micturating cystourethrography (MCU). Since MCU involves ex posure to radiation and urethral catheterization, it is now reserved for children with parenchymal involvement or recurrent UTI. VUR is the backward flow of urine into one or both ureters. Clinical manifestations other than UTI include incidental diagnosis on antenatal ultrasonography. Reflux nephro pathy, the re...
Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

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Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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More News: Antibiotic Therapy | Bladder Catheterization | Children | Cystitis | Hypertension | Incontinence | India Health | Jaundice | Pain | Pain Management | Pediatrics | Proteinuria | Pyelonephritis | Renal Failure | Urinary Tract Infections