Capacity to Elicit Cytotoxic CD8 T Cell Activity Against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Is Retained in a Vaccine Candidate 35 kDa Peptide Modified for Expression in Mammalian Cells

Studies focused on development of an attenuated vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Ptb) in cattle and other species, revealed that deletion of relA, a global gene regulator, abrogates the ability of Map to establish a persistent infection. In the absence of relA, cattle develop CD8 cytotoxic T cells (CTL) with the ability to kill intracellular bacteria. Analysis of the recall response to a relA mutant, Map/ΔrelA, with cells from a vaccinated steer demonstrated that a 35-kDa membrane peptide (MMP) is one of the targets of the response. This observation suggested that it might be possible to develop a peptide-based vaccine. As reported here, the gene encoding the hypothetical MMP ORF, MAP2121c, was modified for expression in mammalian cells as a first step in developing an expression cassette for incorporation into a mammalian expression vector. The modified sequence of MMP, tPA-MMP, was mutated to generate two additional sequences for the study, one with substitutions to replace five potential residues that could be glycosylated, tPA-MMP-5mut, and one with substitutions to replace the first two potential residues that could be glycosylated, tPA-MMP-2mut. The sequences were placed in an expression cassette to produce peptides for analysis. An ex vivo platform was used with flow cytometry and a bacterium viability assay to determine if modifications in the gene encoding MMP for expression in mammalian...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Source: Biotechnology Progress - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
This study provides strong evidence that following a healthy lifestyle can substantially extend the years a person lives disease-free." Commentary on Recent Evidence for Cognitive Decline to Precede Amyloid Aggregation in Alzheimer's Disease https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/01/commentary-on-recent-evidence-for-cognitive-decline-to-precede-amyloid-aggregation-in-alzheimers-disease/ I can't say that I think the data presented in the research noted here merits quite the degree of the attention that it has been given in the popular science press. It is interesting, but not compelling if its role...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Veterinary ParasitologyAuthor(s): Pengfei Zhao, Yuncan Li, Yanqin Zhou, Junlong Zhao, Rui FangAbstractEimeria tenella, belonging to protozoon, is the causative agent of cecal coccidiosis in chicken and causes enormous impacts for poultry industry. The surface antigens of apicomplexan parasites function as attachment and invasion in host-parasite interaction. Meanwhile, host immune response is triggered as a result of parasitic invasion. Immunogenicity and potency as a vaccinal candidate antigen of E. tenella surface antigen 4 (EtSAG4) have been unknown. Therefore, a...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
This study evalua...
Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
In this study, we generated a recombinant adenovirus vaccine encoding the heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) and the core neutralizing epitope (COE) of PEDV (rAd-LTB-COE). The fusion protein LTB-COE was successfully expressed by the recombinant adenovirus in HEK293 cells, and the immunogenicity of the vaccine candidate was assessed in BALB/c mice and piglets. Three intramuscular or oral vaccinations with rAd-LTB-COE at two-week intervals induced robust humoral and mucosal immune responses. Moreover, a cell-mediated immune response was promoted in immunized mice, and the neutralizing antibody inhibited both the vaccine strain ...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Based on the in silico analyses, the empty capsid protein was determined to be recognised by different B and T cells, as well as cells which carry MHC epitopes. PMID: 31929728 [PubMed]
Source: Current Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Curr Genomics Source Type: research
Babesia microti, a tick-borne intraerythrocytic zoonotic protozoan, causes most of human babesiosis in the world, and patients usually experience intermittent fever, fatigue, and chills, followed by a combination of additional symptoms and even death in severe cases. Unfortunately, there is no curable drug or effective vaccine available, and the mechanism of related virulence factors in invasion to host cells during the merozoite stage is unclear. Here, we evaluated a secreted protein annotated as B. microti surface antigen 1 (BmSA1) and identified from in vitro culture supernatant by liquid chromatography coupled with tan...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study’s objective was to determine how these oral treatments, individually or in combination, would impact the gut environment of chickens. White Leghorn chicks were either non-treated (CON) or orally given probiotics (PRO), a recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV; VAX), or both (P+V). Birds were fed with probiotics daily beginning at 1-day-old and orally immunized with RASV at 4-days-old and boosted 2 weeks post-primary vaccination. At 5 weeks, ceca content, ceca tissues, and small intestinal scrapings (SISs) were collected from ten birds/group post-euthanasia for analyses. Catecholamine, but not sero...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study applied a causal inference approach to data from a multisite study that deployed broadly inclusive diagnostics for numerous high-burden common enteropathogens. Relative risks (RRs) of infection with each pathogen during a flooding disaster that occurred at one of the sites—Loreto, Peru—were calculated from generalized linear models using a comparative interrupted time series framework with the other sites as a comparison group and adjusting for background seasonality. During the early period of the flood, increased risk of heat-stable enterotoxigenic E. coli (ST-ETEC) was identified (RR = 1.7...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
AbstractThe avian respiratory tract is a common entry route for many pathogens and an important delivery route for vaccination in the poultry industry. Immune responses in the avian lung have mostly been studied in vivo due to the lack of robust, relevant in vitro and ex vivo models mimicking the microenvironment. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) have the major advantages of maintaining the 3-dimensional architecture of the lung and includes heterogeneous cell populations. PCLS have been obtained from a number of mammalian species and from chicken embryos. However, as the embryonic lung is physiologically undifferentiated ...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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