Neurotrophic mechanisms underlying the rapid and sustained antidepressant actions of ketamine

Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Pharmacology Biochemistry and BehaviorAuthor(s): Satoshi Deyama, Ronald S. DumanAbstractClinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that depression, one of the most common psychiatric illnesses, is associated with reduced levels of neurotrophic factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), contributing to neuronal atrophy in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, and reduced hippocampal adult neurogenesis. Conventional monoaminergic antidepressants can block/reverse, at least partially, these deficits in part via induction of BDNF and/or VEGF, although these drugs have significant limitations, notably a time lag for therapeutic response and low response rates. Recent studies reveal that ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist produces rapid (within hours) and sustained (up to a week) antidepressant actions in both patients with treatment-resistant depression and rodent models of depression. Rodent studies also demonstrate that ketamine rapidly increases BDNF and VEGF release and/or expression in the medial PFC (mPFC) and hippocampus, leading to increase in the number and function of spine synapses in the mPFC and enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis. These neurotrophic effects of ketamine are associated with the antidepressant effects of this drug. Together, these findings provide evidence for a neurotrophic mechanism underlying ...
Source: Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Kim Fricke, Susanne VogelAbstractFRICKE, K. and S. Vogel. How interindividual differences shape approach-avoidance behavior: Relating self-report and diagnostic measures of interindividual differences to behavioral measurements of approach and avoidance. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, XXXX. -Responding to stimuli in ambiguous environments is partially governed by approach-avoidance tendencies. Imbalances in these approach-avoidance behaviors are implicated in many mental disorders including anxiety disorders, p...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
General surgery residents encounter frequent mistreatment by patients as well as attending physicians that leads to burnout and suicidal thoughts. This is the finding of a cross-sectional national survey of general surgery residents, which found that more than 50% of general surgery residents report some form of mistreatment (N Engl J Med. 2019;381:1741-1752). Mistreatment included […]
Source: ENT Today - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tags: News Online Exclusives Source Type: research
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Source: Psychology, Health and Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
A piece of the puzzle seems to be missing. The continued push by mental health practitioners and academics against the rising rates of suicide across the globe, through research and interventions in clinics and schools, has resulted in minimal success....
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
Background: Comorbid depression and substance use disorders (SUDs) are associated with poor health and social outcomes disproportionately affecting under-resourced communities.Objectives: To test the hypothesis that a coalition approach to co...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news
This study was conducted assess the frequency of suicide attempt among the transgender population and analyse the relationship of depression and other socio-demographic factors with the suicide attempt Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Th...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Risk Factor Prevalence, Injury Occurrence Source Type: news
Lie-telling and secret-keeping are common behaviors during adolescence. Given the importance of honesty for building trust in positive relationships, the present study examined relations between lie-telling, secret-keeping, and relationship quality over ti...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and suicidality are common reasons for emergency presentations in child and adolescent psychiatry. Therefore, we focused on reasons for emergency presentations as well as specific characteristics of those presenting with NSSI or suicidality to an emergeny psychiatric service. We analyzed data from a German university hospital regarding emergency presentations during a 78 months' period. NSSI and suicidality were rated according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA). Data from 546 emergency presentations was recorded, of which 347 (63.5%) presented for NSSI or...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study was performed to verify whether the antidepressant effects of SNS were related to its anti-inflammatory effects, the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymatic activity. In our study, behavioral tests such as the forced swim test, sucrose preference test and open-field test were evaluated to ensure the establishment of depressive rats. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the serum, liver, and hippocampus of rats were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Furthermore, the key proteins NF-κB, BDNF, and TrkB were analyzed by Weste...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of sleep and pulmonary comorbidities in patients with psoriasis and summarize important recent findings.Recent FindingsEvidence continues to show that patients with psoriasis experience greater chronic sleep impairment when compared to healthy counterparts. In addition to other comorbidities seen in psoriasis patients, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have increased frequency in this population.SummarySleep and pulmonary comorbidities in psoriasis co...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
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