Researchers create accurate model of organ scarring using stem cells in a lab

Every organ in the body is capable, to some extent, of repairing itself after an injury. As part of this process, scar tissue forms and then recedes to make room for normal tissue when healing is complete.However, when healing is disrupted — whether by chronic injury or disease — the cells that make up scar tissue can go rogue, continuously dividing and spreading until the scar eventually strangles the organ it was intended to help heal, which can lead to organ failure.That progressive, out-of-control scarring is called fibrosis, and it can occur in any organ in the body. Fibrosis plays a major role in many diseases and conditions, including chronic kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, scleroderma and heart failure.“Millions of people living with fibrosis have very limited treatment options,” said Dr. Brigitte Gomperts, a member of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA. “Once scarring gets out of control, we don’t have any treatments that can stop it, except for whole-organ transplant.”For decades, researchers have been seeking a therapy that can halt or reverse fibrosis, but one major roadblock has been the difficulty of replicating the complex, progressive nature of the disease in the lab, where possible treatments could be tested.Now, a team led by Gomperts has developed a “scar in a dish” model that uses multiple types of cells derived fr...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Stem Cell ReportsAuthor(s): Weiwei Yang, G. Devon Trahan, Elizabeth D. Howell, Nancy A. Speck, Kenneth L. Jones, Austin E. Gillen, Kent Riemondy, Jay Hesselberth, David Bryder, Patricia ErnstSummaryThe Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL1, KMT2A) gene is critical for development and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), however, whether this protein is limiting for HSC development is unknown due to lack of physiologic model systems. Here, we develop an MLL1-inducible embryonic stem cell (ESC) system and show that induction of wild-type MLL1 during ESC di...
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
In conclusion, we succeeded in generating an iPSC-based RAG2-SCID model, which enabled the identification of previously unrecognized disorder-related T cell developmental roadblocks.Graphical Abstract
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Stem Cell ReportsAuthor(s): Insoo Hyun, Megan Munsie, Martin F. Pera, Nicolas C. Rivron, Janet RossantOver the past few years, a number of research groups have reported striking progress on the generation of in vitro models from mouse and human stem cells that replicate aspects of early embryonic development. Not only do these models reproduce some key cell fate decisions but, especially in the mouse system, they also mimic the spatiotemporal arrangements of embryonic and extraembryonic tissues that are required for developmental patterning and implantation in ...
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
This article describes a model of human induced pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocyte-derived engineered heart tissues (hiPSC-CM EHTs) transduced with the calcium sensor GCaMP6f followed by sequential analysis of force and CaT. Average peak analysis demonstrated the temporal sequence of the CaT preceding the contraction twitch. The pharmacological relevance of the test system was demonstrated with inotropic indicator compounds. Force-frequency relationship was analyzed in the presence of ivabradine (300 nM), which reduced spontaneous frequency and unmasked a positive correlation of force and CaT at physiological human h...
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Xiaomeng Yang, Beibei Yan, Haiyan Zhang, Yanyan Ma, Qi Zhou, Yue Li, Jingyun Guan, Dong Wang, Yi Liu, Zhongtao GaiAbstractAn induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line was generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a 3-day-old boy with 47,XXY and Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency carrying hemizygote mutation (c.663+2T>G (sliping)) in OTC. The iPSCs had original 47,XXY, and mutation in OTC, expressing pluripotency markers and bearing differentiation potential in vitro.
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Rachelle Balez, Tracey Berg, Monique Bax, Sonia Sanz Muñoz, Mauricio C. Cabral-da-Silva, Martin Engel, Dzung Do-Ha, Claire H. Stevens, Dominic Rowe, Shu Yang, Ian P. Blair, Lezanne OoiAbstractDermal fibroblasts were donated by a 43 year old male patient with clinically diagnosed familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), carrying the SOD1E101G mutation. The induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line UOWi007-A was generated using repeated mRNA transfections for pluripotency transcription factors Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, c-Myc, Lin28 and...
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Jingyun Guan, Zilong Li, Haiyan Zhang, Xiaomeng Yang, Yanyan Ma, Yue Li, Rui Dong, Zhongtao Gai, Yi LiuAbstractMethylmalonic acidemia and homocystinuria, cblC type is a rare autosomal recessive inheritance disease. Its clinical phenotype involves multiple systems with varying degrees of severity. The disease is caused by the mutations in the MMACHC gene located on chromosome 1p34.1. Here we report the generation of an iPSC line from the PBMCs of a patient with compound heterozygous mutations in the MMACHC gene. This new iPSC line will al...
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Nano EnergyAuthor(s): Xiaoling Ma, Jian Wang, Qiaoshi An, Jinhua Gao, Zhenghao Hu, Chunyu Xu, Xiaoli Zhang, Zhitian Liu, Fujun ZhangAbstractTernary strategy has been confirmed as an efficient method to improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The 15.7% PCE is achieved from PM6:Y6 based binary OPVs. One nonfullerene acceptor Br-ITIC and fullerene derivative PC71BM are selected as the third component on the basis of efficient binary OPVs, respectively. The optimized ternary OPVs exhibit 16.4% and 16.2% PCE with Br-ITIC and PC71BM ...
Source: Nano Energy - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Materials Today: ProceedingsAuthor(s): Elena LacatusAbstractThe flexible functionalized graphene-based auxetic nanostructures are freely adapting the wave fields while their phase and amplitude being entirely controlled by design. Computer modelling can be used to define a biocompatible unit-module, as a GO-composite bilayer able to mimic the relationship between the structural composition of the skin and its response to bio-electro-magnetically stimuli. The selective response of the excited system simulates the functional behaviour of the model unit volume, the ski...
Source: Materials Today: Proceedings - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
In this study, Three-dimensional porous scaffolds made of Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH)/polycaprolactone (PCL) nanocomposites with different LDH contents have been prepared for bone tissue engineering applications. The microspheres-aggregated nanocomposite scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying and particulate leaching methods. The size of the microspheres ranges from 13 μm to 58 μm, in which the minimum microsphere size was achieved in the PCL scaffold with 0.1 wt% LDH. The hydrophilicity of the scaffolds was improved by the incorporation of LDH nanoparticles as demonstrated by the water contact ang...
Source: Materials Today Communications - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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