Transmigration of Tetraspanin 2 (Tspan2) siRNA Via Microglia Derived Exosomes across the Blood Brain Barrier Modifies the Production of Immune Mediators by Microglia Cells
AbstractMicroglia are implicated in the neuropathogenesis of HIV. Tetraspanin 2 (Tspan2) is closely related to CD9 and CD81 proteins, and are expressed on microglia cells. They have been implicated in cell fusion and adhesion and in the immune response, and neuroinflammation. Developing therapeutics that target microglia remains a challenge as these therapeutics must cross the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB). Our goal was to use microglia derived exosomes as a vehicle to deliver siRNA across the BBB to target human telomerase reverse transcriptase immortalized human microglial cells (HTHU) latently infected by HIV (HTHU-HIV) and to evaluate if the knockdown of Tspan2 gene expression in changes the activation state of microglia cells, thereby modulating the neuroinflammatory response. A blood brain barrier (BBB) model that closely mimics and accurately reflects the characteristics and functional properties of the in vivo BBB was used to examine HTHU microglia exosome effects on BBB permeability, and their ability to migrate across the and delivery small interfering RNA (siRNA) to cells on the CNS side of the BBB model. Exosomes were loaded with Texas-Red control siRNA (20 pmol) or Cy5-Tspan2 siRNA and then placed in the apical side of the BBB model, 24 h after incubation, HTHU-HIV cells microglial cells on the lower chamber were either imaged for siRNA uptake or analyzed for gene expression induced modifications. HTHU exosomes transmigrate from the apical side of the BBB ...
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