Pure Altruistic Gift and the Ethics of Transplant Medicine

AbstractThe article argues that altruistic giving based on anonymity, which is expected to promote social solidarity and block trade in human body parts, is conceptually defective and practically unproductive. It needs to be replaced by a more adequate notion which responds to the human practices of giving and receiving. The argument starts with identification of the main characteristics of the anonymous altruistic donation: social separation of the organ donor (or donor family) from the recipient, their mutual replaceability, non-obligatoriness of donation, and non-obligatoriness of reciprocation on the recipient ’s part. Since these characteristics are also central to typical market relations, anonymous altruistic donation not only cannot promote solidarity but may encourage proposals for (regulated) markets of transplantable organs. Thus, transplant ethics needs to be reframed. It needs to be rooted in, rather than promote, the practices of giving and receiving known to human societies. As the basis for such reframing, the idea of sharing in another’s misfortune is proposed. It relies on the human practices of giving and receiving and, with appropriate regulatory safeguards, can provide a better conceptual basis for blocking commercial exchanges of human body parts.
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

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Week-long storage boosts time organs are usable and distances over which they can be movedHuman livers from organ donors can now be preserved for a week, researchers have revealed, a dramatic improvement on previous techniques, which could only keep the organs usable for a matter of hours.The technology could boost the number of livers available for transplantation and offer new approaches to treating diseases such asliver cancer.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Organ donation Medical research Health Society Science World news Source Type: news
Conclusions: Our findings showed that refusal by the family was the most common reason for failure of deceased organ donations. To maximize the number of procured organs, transplant communities need to focus on increasing awareness regarding brain death and organ donation and establish strategies to increase consent obtained from the families. PMID: 31903853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Chirurgica Belgica - Category: Surgery Tags: Acta Chir Belg Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS For hospital staff in Japanese medical facilities, high knowledge about organ donation and transplantation was not associated with donor registration, but was associated with willingness to become an organ donor. PMID: 31896742 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annals of Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Ann Transplant Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This is the first survey describing the attitudes of healthcare providers towards cardiac DCDD. We identified widespread support for cardiac DCDD and its implementation in Canada among Canadian healthcare providers within the organ donation and transplantation community in Canada. PMID: 31898778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Can J Anaesth Source Type: research
ConclusionThis is the first survey describing the attitudes of healthcare providers towards cardiac DCDD. We identified widespread support for cardiac DCDD and its implementation in Canada among Canadian healthcare providers within the organ donation and transplantation community in Canada.
Source: Canadian Journal of Anesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
We present a case report of a technical complication arisen during an NRP for DCD. During the extracorporeal circuit, we observed a dramatical decrease in the blood flow with excessive negative inlet pressure. It was because of a later recognized venous cannula malposition. In fact, we did not perform the radiological control for wire position. As a consequence, our clinical practice was modified. Currently, a radiological control of the wire is performed before the insertion of the catheter. Even if the donation was accomplished successfully, we reckon that it is fundamental to describe the technical issue that may occur ...
Source: ASAIO Journal - Category: Medical Devices Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research
This article presents two cases of successful organ donation and transplant, after Maastricht category III cardiac death in patients with successfully rep...
Source: World Journal of Emergency Surgery - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
AbstractOne of the most significant developments in recent history has probably been organ donation and organ transplantation. They are frequently the only treatment available in certain cases. However, there is an ever-increasing discrepancy between the number of people needing transplantation and the organs available, because the decision to donate an organ is up to each individual. The study aims to assess the impact of the intervention on knowledge, attitudes and practices on organ donation among religious immigrants in Sweden. Data were collected through three group interviews using open-ended questions and qualitativ...
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research
AbstractOrgan donation has gained much attention as the need for transplant exceeds the supply of organs. Various proposals have been put forward to address the organ shortage challenge, ranging from offering incentives to donors, addressing family refusals to donations and instituting presumed consent laws. Presumed consent as the favoured approach has not been universally effective in increasing actual transplants despite its appeal. Few considerations have been given to the broader ethical climate influencing the organ donation debate. This paper examines the ethical climate surrounding organ donation and identifies the...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research
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Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized health Healthcare medicine public health Source Type: news
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