Children With Metabolically Healthy Obesity: A Review

Children with “metabolically healthy obesity” (MHO) are a distinct subgroup of youth with obesity, who are less prone to the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors. Although this phenotype, frequently defined by the absence of metabolic syndrome components or insulin resistance, was first described during the early 1980s, a consensus-based definition of pediatric MHO was introduced only recently, in 2018. The purpose of this review was to concisely summarize current knowledge regarding the MHO phenomenon in youth. The prevalence of MHO in children varies from 3 to 87%, depending on the definition used and the parameters evaluated, as well as the ethnicity and the pubertal status of the sample. The most consistent predictors of MHO in youth include younger age, lower body mass index, lower waist circumference, and lower body fat measurements. Various hypotheses have been proposed to elucidate the underlying factors maintaining the favorable MHO phenotype. While preserved insulin sensitivity and lack of inflammation were previously considered to be the main etiological factors, the most recent findings have implicated adipokine levels, the number of inflammatory immune cells in the adipose tissue, and the reduction of visceral adiposity due to adipose tissue expandability. Physical activity and genetic factors also contribute to the MHO phenotype. Obesity constitutes a continuum-increased risk for cardiometabolic complications, which is less evident in children ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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AbstractObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is increasingly common among middle aged and older adults and is frequently linked to most cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Sleep-disordered breathing and CVD share a number of common risk factors and comorbid conditions including obesity, male gender, advancing age, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension. OSA appears to be associated with worsened CVD outcomes, sleep-related symptoms, quality of life, and risk of motor vehicle accidents. Demonstrating a cause-and-effect relationship between CVD and OSA has been challenging due to shared comorbidities. Strong evidence demonstratin...
Source: Sleep and Breathing - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
SummaryBackgroundFew studies have investigated how lifestyle is associated with body composition in children born very low birth weight (VLBW,
Source: Pediatric Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Abstract CONTEXT: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder and is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS). Development of MS in PCOS is likely multifactorial and may relate to poor sleep. OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in objective markers of sleep in adolescents with obesity and PCOS with and without MS. We also aimed to examine the relationships between markers of sleep with MS markers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents with PCOS and obesity with MS (N = 30) or without MS (N = 36). OUTCOME MEASURES: Hormone and metabolic measurements, a...
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Korean patients with OSA frequently had comorbid metabolic syndrome. Moderate to severe OSA during REM sleep may be a predictor of metabolic syndrome. PMID: 31898193 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Sleep and Breathing - Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Tags: Sleep Breath Source Type: research
ConclusionKorean patients with OSA frequently had comorbid metabolic syndrome. Moderate to severe OSA during REM sleep may be a predictor of metabolic syndrome.
Source: Sleep and Breathing - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Obese patients require comprehensive preoperative evaluation. Experienced medical teams, appropriate equipment and monitoring, careful anaesthetic management, and an adequate perioperative ventilation strategy may improve postoperative outcomes. Additional perioperative precautions are necessary in patients with severe morbid obesity, metabolic syndrome, untreated or severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, or obesity hypoventilation syndrome; patients receiving home ventilatory support or postoperative opioid therapy; and obese patients undergoing open operations, long procedures or revisional surgery. P...
Source: The British Journal of Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Br J Surg Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Johanna Roche, Flavia Campos Corgosinho, Ana R. Dâmaso, Laurie Isacco, Maud Miguet, Alicia Fillon, Aurore Guyon, Gustavo A. Moreira, Marcia Pradella-Hallinan, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello, Valérie Gillet, Bruno Pereira, Martine Duclos, Yves Boirie, Julie Masurier, Patricia Franco, David Thivel, Fabienne MouginAbstractObjectivesPediatric obesity and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with cardiometabolic risk (CMR), but the degree of severity at which SDB affects cardi...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice with implications on long-term outcomes. Metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus and obesity are independent predictors of atrial fibrillation and present therapeutic targets to reduce both the incidence and duration burden of atrial fibrillation. The presence of pericardial fat in direct contact with cardiac structures, as well the subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines, may play an important role in this connection. Atrial fibrillation is an independent predictor of cognitive impairment and dementia....
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Medicina (Kaunas) Source Type: research
Authors: Sanches E, Timmermans M, Topal B, Celik A, Sundbom M, Ribeiro R, Parmar C, Ugale S, Proczko M, Stepaniak PS, Pujol Rafols J, Mahawar K, Buise MP, Neimark A, Severin R, Pouwels S Abstract Introduction: Obesity is associated with various diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. It affects several organ systems, including the pulmonary and cardiac systems. Furthermore, it induces pulmonary and cardiac changes that can result in right and/or left heart failure.Areas covered: In this review, authors provide an overv...
Source: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy - Category: Cardiology Tags: Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther Source Type: research
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated an association between fibrosis, a finding of worse prognosis in patients with NAFLD, and moderate to severe OSA, regardless of obesity.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research
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