Differential Impact of Dietary Branched Chain and Aromatic Amino Acids on Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Rats

The metabolism of dietary proteins generates waste products that are excreted by the kidney, in particular nitrogen-containing urea, uric acid, ammonia, creatinine, and other metabolites such as phosphates, sulfates, and protons. Kidney adaptation includes an increase in renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and represents a burden for diseased kidneys increasing the progression rate of CKD. The present study aimed at identifying potential differences between amino acid (AA) groups constituting dietary proteins regarding their impact on RPF, GFR, and CKD progression. We utilized the well-established 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) CKD model in rats and submitted the animals for 5 weeks to either the control diet (18% casein protein) or to diets containing 8% casein supplemented with 10% of a mix of free amino acids, representing all or only a subset of the amino acids contained in casein. Whereas the RPF and GFR measured in free moving animals remained stable during the course of the diet in rats receiving the control mix, these parameters decreased in animals receiving the branched chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation and increased in the ones receiving the aromatic amino acids (AAAs). In animals receiving essential amino acids (EAAs) containing both BCAAs and AAAs, there was only a small increase in RPF. The kidneys of the 5/6 Nx rats receiving the BCAA diet showed the strongest increase in smooth muscle actin and collagen mRNA expression as a result of h...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): Ko-Lin Kuo, Jin-Feng Zhao, Po-Hsun Huang, Bei-Chia Guo, Der-Cherng Tarng, Tzong-Shyuan LeeAbstractStudies revealed that the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonism is not associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with that in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that indoxyl sulfate (IS) can interfere with the protective effect of valsartan-mediated on endothelial function in vitro and neovascularization in mice u...
Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: We propose a role for systematically incorporating APOL1 genotyping in the evaluation and informed consent process of potential AA donors while acknowledging the controversial considerations associated with it. PMID: 31940609 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research
Conclusions. Transplant physicians should inform potential living kidney donors at risk for APOL1-associated nephropathy about the gene and possibility of genetic testing early in the donor evaluation, well before scheduling the donor nephrectomy. Transplant programs must weigh risks of performing a donor nephrectomy in those with 2 APOL1 renal risk variants (high-risk genotypes), particularly younger individuals. Our program counsels kidney donors with APOL1 high-risk genotypes in the same fashion as with risk genotypes in other nephropathy genes. Because most African American kidney donor candidates lacking hypertensio...
Source: Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Reviews Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) models are known to study pathophysiology and various treatment methods. Renal dysfunction could influence erythrocytes through several pathways. However, hemorheological and microcirculatory relation of CKD models are not completely studied yet. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate erythrocyte micro-rheology, microcirculatory and structural compensatory mechanisms in a rat model of CKD. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to nephrectomy group (NG, n = 6) or sham-operated group (SG, n = 6). NG rats were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy in two stages....
Source: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Clin Hemorheol Microcirc Source Type: research
Prognostic value of connective tissue growth factor and c-Myb expression in IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schönlein purpura-A pilot immunohistochemical study. Acta Histochem. 2019 Dec 20;:151479 Authors: Mizdrak M, Filipović N, Vukojević K, Čapkun V, Mizdrak I, Durdov MG Abstract AIM: Adverse and advanced prognostic signs in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) are interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, but early predictors of bad outcome are still lacking. We investigated expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and c-Myb in renal biopsies of IgAN and Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), becau...
Source: Acta Histochemica - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Acta Histochem Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated whether HIF activation has a beneficial effect on kidney and cardiovascular outcomes in the remnant kidney model. We used the 5/6 nephrectomy model with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 20 mg/L in the drinking water). Rats received diet with 0.005% enarodustat (PHD inhibitor) or vehicle for 8 weeks starting 2 week prior to the 5/6 nephrectomy. Activation of HIF by the PHD inhibitor reduced cardiac hypertrophy and ameliorated myocardial fibrosis in association with restored capillary density and improvement in mitochondrial morphology. In regard to kidneys, e...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research
Authors: Brassetti A, Anceschi U, Bertolo R, Ferriero M, Tuderti G, Capitanio U, Larcher A, Garisto J, Antonelli A, Mottire A, Minervini A, Dell'oglio P, Veccia A, Amparore D, Flammia RS, Mari A, Porpiglia F, Montorsi F, Kaouk J, Autorino R, Carini M, Gallucci M, Simone G Abstract BACKGROUND: To improve standard reporting of outcomes after partial nephrectomy, different "Trifecta" systems have been conceived. The subjective assessment of the included parameters and the unreliability for off-clamp procedures limited their reproducibility; their role in predicting functional and oncologic outcomes has never...
Source: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Minerva Urol Nefrol Source Type: research
Abstract Failure to mature and venous neointimal hyperplasia formation are the two major causes of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula (AVF) vascular access failure. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is the first-line treatment for both of these conditions, but clinically, women have decreased patency rates when compared to men. The hypothesis to be tested in the present paper was that female mice after PTA of venous areas of higher intimal thickening have increased gene expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and transforming growth factor-β receptor 1 (TGFβ-R1) accompani...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research
Purpose of review Despite improvement in short-term renal allograft survival in recent years, renal transplant recipients (RTR) have poorer long-term allograft outcomes. Allograft function slowly declines with periods of stable function similar to natural progression of chronic kidney disease in nontransplant population. Nearly all RTR transitions to failing renal allograft (FRG) period and require transition to dialysis. Conservative chronic kidney disease management before transition to end-stage renal disease is an increasingly important topic; however, there is limited data in RTR regarding how to delay dialysis init...
Source: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: NOVEL THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES IN NEPHROLOGY AND HYPERTENSION: Edited by Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh and Ekamol Tantisattamo Source Type: research
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent worldwide and is associated with significant co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Traditionally, the subtotal nephrectomy (remnant kidney) experimental model has been performed in rats to model progressive renal disease. The model experimentally mimics CKD by reducing nephron number, resulting in renal insufficiency. Presently, there is a lack of translation of pre-clinical findings into successful clinical results. The pre-clinical nephrology field would benefit from reproducible progressive renal disease models in mice in order to avail of more widely available ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
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