Role of Imaging for Suspected Cardiac Thrombus

AbstractPurpose of reviewCardiac thrombus formation is a frequent complication of a variety of prevalent diseases. Embolism of cardiac thrombus has the potential to result in significant morbidity and mortality from cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular events.Recent findingsEchocardiography is the most commonly used imaging modality for diagnosing intracardiac thrombus. However, technological advances in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have allowed newer noninvasive modalities to evolve into robust tools for the clinical evaluation of patients suspected of disease.SummaryComplimentary use of these imaging techniques is crucial in the diagnosis of cardiac thrombus and initiation of anticoagulation therapy.
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe purpose of this study is to review the utility of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in diagnosing and differentiating among different cardiac masses.Recent FindingsRecent advances in tissue characterization have made CMR the noninvasive modality of choice in differentiating cardiac masses. Greater spatial resolution, sophisticated tissue characterization, and multiple imaging planes to assess intra-cavitary masses enable CMR to perform a “virtual biopsy” of the mass.SummaryCardiac tumors are rare but reporting of cardiac masses on noninvasive testing as computed tomograph...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
AbstractDespite the decline in mortality rates over the last 20  years, cancer remains one of the leading causes of death in children worldwide. Early recognition and treatment for acute oncological emergencies are vital in preventing mortality and poor outcomes, such as irreversible end-organ damage and a compromised quality of life.Imaging plays a pivotal and adjunctive role to clinical examination, and a high level of interpretative acumen by the radiologist can make the difference between life and death. In contrast to adults, the most accessible cross-sectional imaging tool in children typically involves ultras...
Source: Insights into Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
AbstractEarly neurological deterioration (END) following intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment is a serious clinical event that can be caused by hemorrhagic or ischemic insult. We investigated the differences in predictive factors for END due to hemorrhagic and END due to ischemic insults. Consecutive patients from four hospitals who received 0.6  mg/kg intravenous rt-PA for acute ischemic stroke were retrospectively recruited. END was defined as a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 4 points within 24 h compared with baseline. END was class...
Source: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
ConclusionsIVC reconstruction is a safe option for patients requiring IVC resection during oncologic surgery as evidenced by 1-year survival of 75% and 1-year primary patency approaching 90%. The overall rate of postoperative thrombus development was low and similar across all groups. In the management of primary and secondary retroperitoneal malignant disease with IVC infiltration, IVC reconstruction should be considered to achieve appropriate oncologic resection while minimizing possible complications from caval interruption.
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
AbstractCardiac myxomas (CM) is by far the most common type of primary cardiac neoplasm that commonly arise within the left atria and is composed of primitive connective tissue cells and stroma. Despite the benign nature, the CMs are often surgically removed because they can lead to severe complications. Large, thin, and hypermobile forms are unusual. The frequency of recurrence is about 22% for complex forms and 12% for other familial forms and 1% to 3% for sporadic myxomas, which seldom recur after surgery. Although transesophageal echocardiography shows usually accurate imaging capabilities to detect the myxoma, further...
Source: Journal of Cardiac Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tags: IMAGES IN CARDIAC SURGERY Source Type: research
Conclusions Despite being a rare condition, Gradenigo syndrome should be taken into account as potential differential diagnosis in children referred to emergency department for recurrent headache and strabismus. An accurate anamnesis to document recent ear infection is mandatory to orientate the diagnosis and focus radiological investigations. Early recognition and timely intervention may allow conservative management to succeed, avoiding the need for surgery and serious sequelae.
Source: Pediatric Emergency Care - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Illustrative Cases Source Type: research
This report describes a rare case of acute pylephlebitis complicated by hepatic abscess formation secondary to Fusobacterium nucleatum. The patient is a 48-year-old woman who presented with worsening abdominal pain and malaise for 3 weeks. She had a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery 4 months earlier that showed a phlegmon at the surgical site on a contrast computed tomography scan postsurgery. Physical examination revealed right upper quadrant tenderness, and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver showed portal vein thrombosis with multiple hepatic abscesses. The patient was started empirically on cefepime and metronidazol...
Source: Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research
AbstractThe healing process, occurring after intra-cardiac and intra-vascular device implantation, starts with fibrin condensation and attraction of inflammatory cells, followed by the formation of fibrous tissue that slowly covers the device. The duration of this process is variable and may be incomplete, which can lead to thrombus formation, dislodgement of the device or stenosis. To better understand this process and the neotissue formation, animal models were developed: small (rats and rabbits) and large (sheep, pigs, dogs and baboons) animal models for intra-vascular device implantation; sheep and pigs for intra-cardi...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
AbstractThe Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) is widely used for the assessment of early ischemic changes (EICs) before thrombolysis. However, for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) following intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), the prediction abilities of CT-ASPECTS, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-ASPECTS, and DWI-ASPECTS including EICs in deep white matter (DWI-ASPECTS  + W) are unclear. We investigated associations between each score and sICH following intravenous rt-PA. Data from consecutive patients who received intravenous rt-PA for acut...
Source: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
AbstractExtension of tumor tissue within a vein is a recognized prognostic factor in abdominal malignancy because of its influence on tumor staging and selection of therapeutic management. With the advent of newer surgical techniques, and variable treatment strategies, imaging plays a crucial role in categorizing patients according to the tumor resectability and vascular reconstruction techniques during surgery. Understanding the clinical impact of tumor thrombus increases the awareness of the radiologist about the key findings in tumor staging and decision-making of surgical approach. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography ...
Source: Abdominal Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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