Treatment supporters and level of health facility influence completion of sputum smear monitoring among tuberculosis patients in rural Uganda: a mixed-methods study

Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research

Related Links:

Abstract A persistently high burden of tuberculosis (TB) and low cure rates in South Africa call for frequent assessment of the effectiveness of the TB programme. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate treatment outcomes and associated factors among new TB patients taking standard regimen 1 TB treatment during 2010 in Pretoria, using the World Health Organization's six treatment outcomes classification. The 85 participants (of whom 59% were female) had co-infection with HIV in 70%. A total of 52% completed treatment, but only 15% were officially cured; 13% died and only 35% had an end-of-treatment s...
Source: Tropical Doctor - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research
Besides a prompt diagnosis and an early treatment initiation, respiratory isolation of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients is a key element to reduce transmission of the infection and its spread into the community.1,2 Pulmonary TB with high-bacillary loads poses a high risk of transmission. Therefore, putting in isolation all patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB with smear-positive sputum is recommended.1,2 Such measures can be avoided or discontinued when two to three serial smear-negative sputum samples are available.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Mixed (polyclonal) infections are one of the main problems in tuberculosis (TB) management. The best available method for detecting polyclonal infections in TB is mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR). According to multiple studies, MIRU-VNTR method can be applied to detect TB-related polyclonal infections in sputum samples or cultures. Setup of MIRU-VNTR on smear slides can be an efficient approach, regardless of the limitations of cultures and sputum samples in many laboratories. The present study aimed at investigating the diagnostic potential of MIRU-VNTR...
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research
This study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of unsuccessful pulmonary TB treatment in community hospitals. A cross-sectional study was conducted from June-July 2019. We enrolled all patients receiving treatments in four community hospitals in central Thailand. The collected data included baseline characteristics, comorbid illnesses, a history of directly observed treatment-short course (DOTS), sputum acid-fast bacilli smear results, and chest radiography and treatment outcomes. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with unsuccessful pulmonary TB treatment. A to...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Conclusion. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an efficient technique for the rapid diagnosis of spinal TB; however, a clinician should not solely rely on it for starting ATT. As there are false results also with this test which should be read cautiously and be well correlated with culture and DST pattern to guide the start of sensitive drug regimen only. The purpose is to prevent exposure of the second line drugs to false cases found on the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and avoid emergence of new acquired drug resistance. Level of Evidence: 4
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: CLINICAL CASE SERIES Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This report describes high MTB and MDR-TB prevalence rates among symptomatic military patients with military personnel having higher odds of MTB infection compared to the civilian patients in the study. Since DSSM (ZN) sensitivity greatly varied depending on MTB load, the Xpert MTB/RIF should be used as a first-line diagnostic tool to identify MTB and detect rifampin resistance among presumptive TB cases instead of DSSM (ZN) microscopy. PMID: 31915831 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
In 2018, there were about 10 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases and 1.24 million TB deaths worldwide. China is ranked second for TB disease burden in the world with estimated 866,000 new TB patients and 37,000 TB related deaths annually (World Health Organization, 2019). One of the reasons for the high incidence of TB is the early discharge of uncured patients who can cause disease transmission. At present, cured TB is mainly evaluated by the following standards: ① Whether the patient has received standardized anti-TB treatment; ② Chest X-ray and/or CT scan results; ③ Sputum smear and sputum culture results.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: The National TB program of Suriname should develop strategies to address patients at higher risk for delayed smear conversion to prevent further spreading and unfavorable treatment outcomes. To better inform decision-making and future studies, the NTP should expand its data collection to include all risk factors for delayed smear conversion. PMID: 31892924 [PubMed]
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
AbstractSince time immemorial, tuberculosis (TB) has intimidated the human race owing to its severity. Its socio-economic burden has led to it being a major cause of concern. It is one of the world ’s major causes of death from a single agent. Since most of the middle- and low-income countries are burdened with TB, sputum smear examination using conventional light microscopy is often the only resort for diagnosing TB. However, fluorescence microscopy is used as standard in most high-income c ountries, owing to its increased sensitivity. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), being inexpensive, are increasingly gaining popular...
Source: Lasers in Medical Science - Category: Laser Surgery Source Type: research
Ramadass Sathiyamoorthy, Mani Kalaivani, Praveen Aggarwal, Sanjeev Kumar GuptaLung India 2020 37(1):45-52 The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program was started in India in 1997. There has been no nationwide survey to assess the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature to provide an estimate of the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in India. Several databases including Medline, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for studies published between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2018, wh...
Source: Lung India - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Infectious Diseases | Papanicolaou (Pap) Smear | Rural Health | Study | Tuberculosis | Uganda Health