Brain malignancies: Glioblastoma and brain metastases

Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Tamara T. Lah, Metka Novak, Barbara BreznikAbstractBrain, the major organ of the central nervous system controls and processes most of body activities. Therefore, the most aggressive brain tumor – glioblastoma and metastases from other organs to the brain are lethal leaving the patients with very short time of survival. The brain tissue landscape is very different from any other tissues and the specific microenvironment, comprising stem cells niches and blood-brain barrier, significantly influences the low rate of glioblastoma metastasis out of the brain, but better accommodates brain-invading cancer. In contrast to low frequency (0.5%) of all glioblastoma metastases, 10%–45% of other primary cancers do metastasize to the brain. This review addresses general cellular and molecular pathways that are to some extent similar in both types of metastases, involving circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with cancer stem cells (CSCs) characteristics, and metastatic niches. The invasion is a dynamic process involving reversible epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) cell process, creating a transient gradient state that is inter-connected with epigenetic plasticity of the metastasizing (m)CSCs. These cells can switch between stationary, low proliferating/dormant state to a migratory, mesenchymal-like state. Settling in their respective niches as dormant CSCs in the secondary organ is a common ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Rita Lampignano, Vera Kloten, Thomas Krahn, Thomas SchlangeAbstractLiquid biopsy holds great promise to complement traditional analysis on cancerous tissue during clinical management of cancer: screening of patients, (early) disease diagnosis, prognosis, therapy selection as well as early response to treatment and disease monitoring. Among emerging circulating biomarkers, cell-free miRNA (cfmiRNA) may have potential in detecting lung cancer and following the course of the disease. Furthermore, several studies highlighted the p...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of DiseaseAuthor(s): Tomasz Kowalczyk, Michal Ciborowski, Joanna Kisluk, Adam Kretowski, Coral BarbasAbstractPrecision medicine (PM) means the customization of healthcare with decisions and practices adjusted to the individual patient. It includes personalized diagnostics, patients' sub-classification, individual treatment selection and the monitoring of its effectiveness. Currently, in oncology, PM is based on the molecular and cellular features of a tumor, its microenvironment and the patient's genetics and lif...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Khalil Hajiasgharzadeh, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Behzad Mansoori, Vahid Khaze Shahgoli, Afshin Derakhshani, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Dariush Shanehbandi, Behzad BaradaranAbstractAimsIt has been demonstrated that reduced expression of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) led to reduced chemotherapeutic drugs resistance in various cancer cells. However, whether small interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated knockdown of α7nAChR can reduce sorafenib (SOR) resistance in HCC cells remains to be determined.Materials and methodsThe effects ...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Conclusions The recent, first randomized clinical trial demonstrated overall and progression free survival benefits after SBRT to oligometastatic disease which supports prior retrospective case series (6). The spine is a common site of metastatic bone disease, and as high quality data continue to mature, along with completion of additional randomized clinical trials, it is expected that utility of SBRT to the spine will increase in the future. Spine SBRT is unique due to the requirement of sharp dose falloff to prevent serious neurologic morbidity. With recent advances in radiotherapy planning, robotic patient positionin...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion Several TISC-based immunotherapeutic approaches are under development in various stages of preclinical studies. As outlined in this review article, a careful and more exhaustive genetic and metabolic understanding of TISC-associated phenotypes is critical to develop novel TISC based immunotherapies. Various components within the tumor microenvironment such as tumor cells, infiltrating immune cells, and supporting stromal cells impact the TISC metabolism. This unique metabolic profile leads to upregulation of certain enzymes and proteins such as ALDH1, CEP55, IDO COA1 etc., which can be utilized for development ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Discussion Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 is an essential molecule for maintaining immune homeostasis and subverting inflammation. Disorders arising from excess inflammation or SOCS1 deficiency can be potentially treated with SOCS1 mimetics (Ahmed et al., 2015). While SOCS1 has promising potential in many disorders, it should be noted that new targets and actions of SOCS1 are still being discovered and not all the effects of this protein are beneficial in autoimmune diseases and cancer. For instance, SOCS1 degrades IRS1 and IRS2, required for insulin signaling, via the SOCS Box domain, thus, limiting its potential in ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions: CAR T cell therapies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of harnessing our body's own defenses to combat tumor cells. Similar research is being conducted on lesser known modifications and gene-modified immune cells, which we highlight in this review. Introduction Chimeric antigen receptors and engineered T cell receptors (based on previously identified high affinity T cell receptors) function by redirecting T cells to a predefined tumor-specific (or tumor-associated) target. Most of these modifications use retroviral or lentiviral vectors to integrate the construct, and most of the receptors ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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