Notch signaling in the pathogenesis of thoracic aortic aneurysms: A bridge between embryonic and adult states
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of DiseaseAuthor(s): Anna Malashicheva, Aleksandra Kostina, Anna Kostareva, Olga Irtyuga, Vladimir UspenskyAbstractAneurysms of the thoracic aorta are a “silent killer” with no evident clinical signs until the fatal outcome. Molecular and genetic bases of thoracic aortic aneurysms mainly include transforming growth factor beta signaling, smooth muscle contractile units and metabolism genes, and extracellular matrix genes. In recent studies, a role of Notch signaling, among other pathways, has emerged in disease pathogenesis. Notch is a highly conserved signaling pathway that regulates the development and differentiation of many types of tissues and influences major cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Mutations in several Notch signaling components have been associated with a number of heart defects, demonstrating an essential role of Notch signaling both in cardiovascular system development and its maintenance during postnatal life. This review discusses the role of Notch signaling in the pathogenesis of thoracic aortic aneurysms considering development and maintenance of the aortic root and how developmental regulations by Notch signaling may influence thoracic aortic aneurysms.
Discussion The aortic valve usually has 3 leaflets. In bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) there are 2 asymmetric leaflets with a fish-mouthed orifice between them which may not open fully. It occurs in about 0.5-2% of the population making it one of the most common congenital heart anomalies and the most common one in adults. Transmission is autosomal dominant yet males are more likely to have BAV, indicating potential reduced penetrance in females. “BAVs are different, however, in that the tissue pathology is not limited to the valves’ leaflets but extends from the left ventricular outflow tract to the ascending thor...
ConclusionIn this study, we detected an increased permeability and disruption of the BSCB in DCM patients. The severity of BSCB disruption and the diffusion of Ig are related to the clinical status in our patient cohort. Having documented this particular pathomechanism in patients with DCM, we suggest that this diagnostic tool cloud be an important addition to surgical decision making in the future.Graphic abstractThese slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
Abstract Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for aortic aneurysm and dissection; however, no causative link between smoking and these aortic disorders has been proven. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which cigarette smoke affects vascular wall cells and found that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induced a novel form of regulated cell death termed ferroptosis in VSMCs. CSE markedly induced cell death in A7r5 cells and primary rat VSMCs, but not in endothelial cells, which was completely inhibited by specific ferroptosis inhibitors (Ferrostatin-1 [Fer-1] and Liproxstatin-1) and an iron chel...
The objective of this work was to perform image-based classification of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) based on their demographic, geometric, and biomechanical attributes. We retrospectively reviewed existing demographics and abdominal computed tomography angiography images of 100 asymptomatic and 50 symptomatic AAA patients who received an elective or emergent repair, respectively, within 1-6 months of their last follow up. An in-house script developed within the MATLAB computational platform was used to segment the clinical images, calculate 53 descriptors of AAA geometry, and generate volume meshes suitable for finite...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of endovascular repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) using a novel low profile (LP) device with upper extremity preloaded guidewire system (PGS) and compare procedural metrics and outcomes with a standard multibranch stent graft (t-Branch; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Ind).
The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of fenestrated-branched endovascular aortic repair (F-BEVAR) of pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysms or thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) in patients with a solitary functional kidney (SFK).
This report extends the phenotypic spectrum of variants identified in theSKI gene. We describe a new mutational hotspot associated with a marfanoid syndrome with no intellectual disability. Cardiovascular involvement was confirmed in a significant number of cases, highlighting the importance of accurately diagnosing SGS and ensuring appropriate medical treatment and follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: Most patients eligible for AAA repair present with baseline erectile and sexual dysfunction. Laparoscopic AAA repair provides no onset of erectile or sexual dysfunction but a global improvement after surgery. Ejaculation troubles are frequent and persistent at 1 year. However, EVAR treatment, doesn't allow recovering of sexual function at 1 year. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. PMID: 31959570 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
ConclusionsStriking differences in the relative numbers of unruptured AAA repairs and in the population characteristics in various districts of the country point to the possibility of different health needs in the regions and variations in standards of care.