Update from the laboratory: mechanistic studies of pathways of cancer-associated venous thrombosis using mouse models.

Update from the laboratory: mechanistic studies of pathways of cancer-associated venous thrombosis using mouse models. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2019 Dec 06;2019(1):182-186 Authors: Hisada Y, Mackman N Abstract Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The rate of VTE varies with cancer type, with pancreatic cancer having one of the highest rates, suggesting that there are cancer type-specific mechanisms of VTE. Risk assessment scores, such as the Khorana score, have been developed to identify ambulatory cancer patients at high risk of VTE. However, the Khorana score performed poorly in discriminating pancreatic cancer patients at risk of VTE. Currently, thromboprophylaxis is not recommended for cancer outpatients. Recent clinical trials showed that factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors reduced VTE in high-risk cancer patients but also increased major bleeding. Understanding the mechanisms of cancer-associated thrombosis should lead to the development of safer antithrombotic drugs. Mouse models can be used to study the role of different prothrombotic pathways in cancer-associated thrombosis. Human and mouse studies support the notion that 2 prothrombotic pathways contribute to VTE in pancreatic cancer patients: tumor-derived, tissue factor-positive (TF+) extracellular vesicles (EVs), and neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In pancreatic cancer patients, elevated levels of plasma EVTF activity and citrull...
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research

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This article also highlights important considerations for individualizing the treatment approach for a given patient given the lack of general consensus of uniform recommendations for this patient population. PMID: 31575787 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our study indicated that enoxaparin was well tolerated and safe for patients who received hepatobiliary-pancreatic surgery for malignancies.Dig Surg
Source: Digestive Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Authors: Sikiric P, Hahm KB, Blagaic AB, Tvrdeic A, Pavlov KH, Petrovic A, Kokot A, Gojkovic S, Krezic I, Drmic D, Rucman R, Seiwerth S Abstract We reviewed again the significance of the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as a likely mediator of Robert's stomach cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection and organoprotection and as novel mediator of Selye's stress coping response to reestablish homeostasis. Specific points of BPC 157 therapy and the original concept of Robert's cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection/organoprotection are discussed, including the beneficial effects of BPC 157. First, BPC 157 protect...
Source: Gut and Liver - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Gut Liver Source Type: research
Abstract Randomized clinical trials evaluated the role of anticoagulants in the prevention of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. This meta-analysis is aimed at providing an updated evaluation of the efficacy and safety of anticoagulant prophylaxis in this clinical setting. Medline and Scopus were searched to retrieve randomized controlled trials on the prevention of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory cancer patients. Two groups of trials were identified with venous thromboembolism or death as primary outcome, respectively. Venous thromboembolism was the primary outcom...
Source: Haematologica - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Haematologica Source Type: research
Conclusions: Targeted inhibition of the coagulation cascade was achieved by administering PCI-27483. PCI-27483 –gemcitabine was well tolerated, but superiority to single agent gemcitabine was not demonstrated.Oncology 2019;96:1 –6
Source: Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Targeted inhibition of the coagulation cascade was achieved by administering PCI-27483. PCI-27483-gemcitabine was well tolerated, but superiority to single agent gemcitabine was not demonstrated. PMID: 30844808 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncology Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
This study aimed to determine the incidence of VTE in patients with abdominal NETs, compare these rates to other abdominal malignancies, and identify VTE risk factors.MethodsThe ACS-NSQIP database was queried to identify patients with abdominal NETs and other abdominal malignancies who underwent surgery from 2008 to 2015. A 30-day postoperative VTE incidence for each group was compared. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify VTE risk factors.ResultsOf the 7226 operations for patients with benign (2154) and malignant (5072) abdominal NETs, 144 patients experienced a VTE without significant differences ...
Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Background: Currently, low molecular weight heparin is the guideline endorsed treatment of patients with cancer associated venous thromboembolism (VTE). While apixaban is approved for the treatment of acute VTE, there are limited data supporting its use in cancer patients.Methods: Patients with cancer associated acute VTE were randomly assigned to receive either apixaban 10 mg twice daily for 7 days followed by 5 mg twice daily or subcutaneous dalteparin (200 IU/kg for 1 month followed by 150 IU/kg once daily) for 6 months. The primary outcome was major bleeding. Secondary outcomes included VTE recurrence and a composite o...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 332. Antithrombotic Therapy: Management of Challenging Patients and Scenarios Source Type: research
Conclusions: Rivaroxaban significantly reduced VTE and VTE-related death during the on-treatment period but not during the full study period; over one-third of events occurred post discontinuation of study drug. The incidence of major bleeding was low. The Khorana risk score cut-off of ≥2 identified cancer patients at high risk of thrombotic events both at baseline (4.53%) and during study (8.79% with additional 1.66% arterial events in placebo group). These results should inform future recommendations regarding thromboprophylaxis in at-risk ambulatory cancer patients.(Funded by Janssen; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Late-Breaking Abstracts Session Source Type: research
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