Single-agent and combination biologics in acute myeloid leukemia.

Single-agent and combination biologics in acute myeloid leukemia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2019 Dec 06;2019(1):548-556 Authors: Richard-Carpentier G, DiNardo CD Abstract Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous malignancy characterized by recurrent genetic, epigenetic, and metabolic abnormalities. As a result of our increasing knowledge of the underlying biology of AML leading to rational drug development, several new targeted agents have been recently added to our therapeutic arsenal. The BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax in combination with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) or hypomethylating agents (HMAs) is safe and effective in older patients with newly diagnosed AML ineligible for intensive chemotherapy. Glasdegib, a hedgehog pathway inhibitor, may be used in combination with LDAC for the same indication and improves survival compared with LDAC alone. In newly diagnosed, fit, older patients with therapy-related AML or AML with myelodysplasia-related changes, the liposome-encapsulated combination of daunorubicin and cytarabine (CPX-351) has shown superiority over the 7 + 3 regimen. The presence of an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation can be effectively targeted by ivosidenib or enasidenib, respectively. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin improves event-free survival in CD33+ patients with favorable or intermediate-risk cytogenetics. With new targeted agents available, comprehensive genomic characterization of AML at diagnosis and relapse is increasingly necessary to s...
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research

Related Links:

(Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard) Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a deadly blood cancer that kills most of its victims within five years. Chemotherapy has been the standard treatment for over 40 years, and while it often causes the cancer to go into remission, nearly half of patients experience disease relapse. Scientists at the Wyss Institute and Harvard SEAS have developed an injectable, biomaterial-based vaccine that, when combined with standard chemotherapy, caused complete and lasting recovery from and immunity against AML in mice.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Abstract BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a common type of hematological malignancy in elderly people. Geriatricians have developed comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) methods for elderly patients; however, the tools used for CGA in AML are not uniform. Thus, we aimed to validate the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scales, age, comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index), and albumin (IACA) index, which is a new tool for CGA, in elderly patients with AML. METHODS: Patients aged ≥60 years who had been diagnosed with AML were screened for eligibility. Among the IACA low-, interm...
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
Opinion statementAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) disease prognosis is poor and there is a high risk of chemo-resistant relapse for both young and old patients. Thus, there is a demand for alternative and target-specific drugs to improve the 5-year survival rate. Current treatment mainstays include chemotherapy, or mutation-specific targeting molecules including FLT3 inhibitors, IDH inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies. Efforts to devise new, targeted therapy have included recent advances in methods for high-throughput genomic screening and the availability of computer-assisted techniques for the design of novel agents predic...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This article describes the etiology and pathophysiology of sAML, and delves into past successful treatments as well as promising new treatments.
Source: Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
We report the case of a 31-year-old man in whom cellulitis developed due to infection after tooth extraction complicated by acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Cellulitis of the left mandible did not improve after conservative therapy, including antimicrobial therapy, because of AML and chemotherapy, and gas was generated in the left cervical and supraclavicular regions. We considered the infection symptoms to be life-threatening, and surgery was performed for the infection of the head and neck under poor general conditions. As histopathological examination of the removed tissue revealed cryptococcus, antifungal agents were admi...
Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionOur study did not find a statistically significant difference in the overall response rates or survival outcome measures for patients with AML and indeterminate day 14 bone marrow in the 2 treatment groups. Our findings question the utility of immediate reinduction chemotherapy and raise concern regarding overtreatment in this patient population. Larger studies investigating similar outcomes are warranted to validate our clinical findings.
Source: Clinical Lymphoma Myeloma and Leukemia - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe high ORR and reasonable duration of response could allow for potentially curative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for these patients with high-risk AML. Our initial data suggest that lenalidomide plus HMA is a promising approach for patients with AML with inv(3).
Source: Clinical Lymphoma Myeloma and Leukemia - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We present two rare cases of hypereosinophilia (HE) in acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype (NK-AML) at diagnosis. The first case is a 29-year-old female who presented with HE. On evaluation, she was found to have NK-AML. She failed to achieve complete remission (CR) after the first induction therapy with standard idarubicin and cytarabine (IA). She achieved CR after two cycles of reinduction chemotherapy with cytarabine, aclarubicin, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (CAG) but had early relapsed. Reinduction chemotherapy with fludarabine, Ara-C, and G-CSF (FLAG) led to her second remission, followe...
Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice - Category: Rural Health Authors: Source Type: research
Purpose of review Exciting translational discoveries in recent years have brought realized promise of immunotherapy for children with high-risk leukemias. This review summarizes the current immunotherapeutic landscape with a focus on key clinical trials for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or acute myeloid leukemia. Recent findings Chemotherapy resistance remains a major barrier to cure in children with high-risk leukemias. Immunotherapy approaches have potential to overcome this resistance given alternative mechanisms of action. Based upon preclinical activity and/or success in adult patients, recent clinic...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: HEMATOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY: Edited by Brigitte Widemann Source Type: research
Purpose of review Despite advances in therapy over the past decades, overall survival for children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not exceeded 70%. In this review, we highlight recent insights into risk stratification for patients with pediatric AML and discuss data driving current and developing therapeutic approaches. Recent findings Advances in cytogenetics and molecular profiling, as well as improvements in detection of minimal residual disease after induction therapy, have informed risk stratification, which now relies heavily on these elements. The treatment of childhood AML continues to be based primaril...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: HEMATOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY: Edited by Brigitte Widemann Source Type: research
More News: Acute Leukemia | Acute Myeloid Leukemia | Biology | Cancer & Oncology | Chemotherapy | Education | Genetics | Hematology | Leukemia | Universities & Medical Training