Autoimmune encephalitis.

Autoimmune encephalitis. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2019 Dec;49(4):287-294 Authors: Goodfellow JA, Mackay GA Abstract Autoimmune encephalitis is emerging as an important and relatively common cause of encephalitis in the developed world. Crucially, early recognition and prompt initiation of a range of immunotherapies is likely to improve the outcomes of patients with autoimmune encephalitis, particularly for those with identifiable antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins. There are a rapidly growing number of specific autoantibodies and associated syndromes, but many of these remain very rare. The majority of cases comprise anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis or anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) encephalitis with the remaining cases a mixture of over 10 other specific antibodies or being seronegative. The core anti-NMDA encephalitis phenotype is a distinct symptom complex involving psychiatric and neurological features and anti-LGI1 encephalitis presents with cognitive changes and distinct seizure types. Diagnosis can be delayed owing to limited access to specialised laboratory testing or in cases with atypical or limited features. PMID: 31808454 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh - Category: General Medicine Tags: J R Coll Physicians Edinb Source Type: research

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Authors: Marinas JE, Matveychuk D, Dursun SM, Baker GB Abstract The past decade has seen a surge of reports and investigations into cases of autoimmune-mediated encephalitis. The increasing recognition of these disorders is especially of relevance to the fields of neurology and psychiatry. Autoimmune encephalitis involves antibodies against synaptic receptors, neuronal cell surface proteins and intracellular targets. These disorders feature prominent symptoms of cognitive impairment and behavioural changes, often associated with presence of seizures. Early in the clinical course, autoimmune encephalitis may manifes...
Source: Acta Neuropsychiatrica - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Acta Neuropsychiatr Source Type: research
Abstract Evaluation of Seizure Treatment in Anti-LGI1, Anti-NMDAR, and Anti-GABABR Encephalitis de Bruijn MAAM, van Sonderen A, van Coevorden-Hameete MH, Bastiaansen AEM, Schreurs MWJ, Rouhl RPW, van Donselaar CA, Majoie MHJM, Neuteboom RF, Sillevis Smitt PAE, Thijs RD, Titulaer MJ. Neurology. 2019;92(19): e2185-e2196. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000007475. Epub April 12, 2019. PMID: 30979857 OBJECTIVE: This nationwide cohort study evaluates seizure responses to immunotherapy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in patients with anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR), and anti-gamma-aminobu...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research
Abstract Background and purpose: The incidence and prevalence of autoimmune encephalitis is gradually increasing. This retrospective observational study primarily aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of autoimmune encephalitis patients in the Second Xiangya Hospital and report patient prognoses after immunotherapy. Methods: The clinical data of 86 patients who were diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis from October 2014 to September 2018 were collected, and their corresponding clinical characteristics, laboratory examination, treatment, and outcome data analyzed. Results: In our study, 72 patients (83.7%) wer...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Niels Hansen1,2* 1Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn Medical Center, Bonn, Germany2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an autoimmune disease defined by clinical criteria, such as seizures, psychiatric and in particular working memory abnormalities in conjunction with apparative criteria underlying structural or functional changes in the temporal lobe according to autoimmune encephalitis guidelines (1). Working memory encompasses a transient encoding of information in readiness for further processing within a time windo...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsA complex of clinical and subclinical seizures, and nonepileptic events characterize ASE. Patients with anti-LGI1 or anti-GABABR antibodies have a higher risk of developing persistent seizures; AEDs are suitable for achieving additional seizure freedom, but not for patients with serious conditions. A few patients present with super-refractory epilepsy despite multiple treatments.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: A complex of clinical and subclinical seizures, and nonepileptic events characterize ASE. Patients with anti-LGI1 or anti-GABABR antibodies have a higher risk of developing persistent seizures; AEDs are suitable for achieving additional seizure freedom, but not for patients with serious conditions. A few patients present with super-refractory epilepsy despite multiple treatments. PMID: 30974347 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
AbstractFaciobrachial dystonic seizures and limbic encephalitis closely associate with antibodies to leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1). Here, we describe 103 consecutive patients with faciobrachial dystonic seizures and LGI1 antibodies to understand clinical, therapeutic and serological differences between those with and without cognitive impairment, and to determine whether cessation of faciobrachial dystonic seizures can prevent cognitive impairment. The 22/103 patients without cognitive impairment typically had normal brain MRI, EEGs and serum sodium levels (P
Source: Brain - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Purpose of Review: Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes target specific areas of the nervous system with pathogenic autoantibodies or T-cell responses. Each syndrome conveys a risk of particular tumors. Expanded paraneoplastic antibody testing has led to improved diagnosis but created challenges involving appropriate interpretation of test results. Recent Findings: Peripheral nervous system paraneoplastic disorders such as myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome involve pathogenic autoantibodies. Recently, the pathogenic mechanisms and antigens of these disorders have been further elucidated. Paraneoplastic...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
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