Genomic Molecular Classification of CNS Malignancies

Molecular studies have identified distinct genomic drivers providing insights in biology of brain tumors. Advances in genetic and epigenetic analysis, as well as development of mutation-specific antibodies enable more accurate classification of histologically indistinguishable tumors. Compared with histopathologic grading, molecular biomarkers are also superior in predicting natural behavior of tumors and therapeutic response. Diffuse gliomas can be separated in astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma based on IDH1/2, ATRX, and TP53 mutational status. Pediatric gliomas are molecularly distinct from adult tumors and molecular drivers include histone H3 genes and fusions involving the MAPK pathway. Using genetic and epigenetic profiling, ependymal tumors, medulloblastomas, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors can be separated in biologically and clinically distinct entities. Identification of novel gene fusions and matched DNA methylation signatures enable accurate diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumors, which were previously misdiagnosed. Genomic classification of central nervous system tumors is being readily translated into the clinical practice and will enable molecularly based patient management and clinical trials.
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

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AbstractObjective5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) –guided resection of gliomas in adults enables better delineation between tumor and normal brain, allowing improved resection and improved patients’ outcome. Recently, several reports were published regarding 5-ALA for resection of pediatric brain tumors. The aim of the study was to determine th e intracellular fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in pediatric brain tumors by hyperspectral imaging and to compare it with visually observed intraoperative fluorescence.Methods5-ALA was administered orally 4  h prior to surgery. During tumor resection, the surg...
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion5-ALA could play a role in resection of pediatric brain tumors. However, further prospective clinical trials are needed.
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
In conclusion, we have shown the safety and efficacy of Vemurafenib in a pediatric patient with DS affected by PXA. Ethics Statement This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the Internal Review Board of the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital with written informed consent from all subjects. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the Internal Review Board of the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital. Informed Consent The authors declare that written informed consent was obtained from the pat...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conditions:   Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma;   Recurrent Anaplastic Astrocytoma;   Recurrent Glioblastoma;   Recurrent Malignant Glioma;   Recurrent Medulloblastoma Interventions:   Drug: Fimepinostat;   Procedure: Therapeutic Conventional Surgery Sponsors:   Sabine Mueller, MD, PhD;   Pacific Pediatric Neuro-Oncology Consortium;   Cannonball Kids' Cancer Foundation;   Curis, Inc. Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
ConclusionH3 K27M mutations are frequent in adult midline gliomas and have a prognostic role similar to H3 K27M wild-type high-grade tumors.
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: H3 K27M mutations are frequent in adult midline gliomas and have a prognostic role similar to H3 K27M wild-type high-grade tumors. PMID: 30610375 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clin Med Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol Source Type: research
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor among children under 15, representing 20% of childhood cancers. Prognosis and therapeutic options vary dramatically based on histologic and molecular profiles. We have studied 222 brain tumors using the CHOP Comprehensive Solid Tumor Panel, which interrogates 238 cancer genes and 110 fusion partners. The most common tumors are pilocytic/pilomyxoid astrocytoma (67), medulloblastoma (23) and diffuse midline glioma (17). Clinically significant genomic alterations were identified in 93% of patients.
Source: Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: The study highlight that [11C]-MET is superior to [18F]-FDG PET scans to detect recurrence in low grade glioma. A cut off value of target to non target value of 1.52 is a useful parameter to distinguish benign from malignant lesion on a [11C]-MET Scan. Both [18F]-FDG &[11C]-MET scan were found to be useful in High Grade Astrocytoma, Oligodendroglioma &Medulloblastoma.
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Neurology & amp; Psychiatry Imaging Posters Source Type: research
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