Cortical thickness in childhood left focal epilepsy: Thinning beyond the seizure focus

This study examines whether cortical thickness and surface area differ between children with left-hemisphere focal epilepsy (LHE) and age-matched typically developing (TD) peers. We examined whether age differentially moderated cortical thickness between groups and if cortical thickness was associated with duration of epilepsy, seizure frequency, or neuropsychological functioning.MethodsThirty-five children with LHE and 35 TD children completed neuropsychological testing and 3T MR imaging. Neuropsychological measures included general intelligence and executive functioning. All MRIs were normal. Surface-based morphometric processing and analyses were conducted using FreeSurfer 6.0. Regression analyses compared age by cortical thickness differences between groups. Correlational analyses examined associations between cortical thickness in these areas with neuropsychological functioning or epilepsy characteristics.ResultsLeft-hemisphere focal epilepsy displayed decreased cortical thickness bilaterally compared to TD controls across 6 brain regions but no differences in surface area. Moderation analyses revealed quadratic relationships between age and cortical thickness for left frontoparietal-cingulate and right superior frontal regions. Higher performance intelligence quotient (IQ) (PIQ) and verbal IQ (VIQ) and fewer parent reported executive function problems were associated with greater cortical thickness in TD children.SignificanceChildren with LHE displayed thinner cortex ex...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Conclusions: Resective surgery is an effective treatment for selected cases of ESES, producing long term seizure freedom, resolution of ESES and stabilization of cognitive and behavioral functioning in most patients. Our case series is the largest single center cohort description addressing resective surgery for ESES. Outcomes in this sample suggest that good long-term seizure, EEG and cognitive/behavioral outcomes can be achieved in patients with normal brain imaging and in limited lobar or multi-lobar resections. Moreover, patients with ESES and very infrequent clinical seizures can benefit from surgery with stabilizatio...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We illustrate the neural networks involved in conceptual thought through a unique patient population and argue that PFC supports this function through activation of a widespread network. PMID: 31951969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Epilepsy &BehaviorAuthor(s): Sangeeta Nair, Jerzy P. SzaflarskiAbstractIn a large percentage of epilepsies, seizures have focal onset. These epilepsies are associated with a wide range of behavioral and cognitive deficits sometimes limited to the functions encompassed within the ictal onset zone but, more frequently, expanding beyond it. The presence of impairments associated with neuroanatomical areas outside of the ictal onset zone suggests distal propagation of epileptic activity via brain networks and interconnected whole-brain neural circuitry. In patients ...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract In a large percentage of epilepsies, seizures have focal onset. These epilepsies are associated with a wide range of behavioral and cognitive deficits sometimes limited to the functions encompassed within the ictal onset zone but, more frequently, expanding beyond it. The presence of impairments associated with neuroanatomical areas outside of the ictal onset zone suggests distal propagation of epileptic activity via brain networks and interconnected whole-brain neural circuitry. In patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify deficits in workin...
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
The objective of the study was to identify the relationship between subcortical gray matter (GM) volumes and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). METHODS: We analyzed the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans that were performed during the time of the diagnosis of epilepsy by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. The volumetric three-dimensional sequence was used for structural investigation. The volumes of the thalamus, caudate nucleus, pallidum, and putamen were measured in both hemispheres of patients with JME, patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone (GTCS) (as a disease control group) and ...
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a technique frequently used to determine the territories of eloquent tissue that serve critical functions, such as language. This can be particularly useful as part of the pre-surgical assessment for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in order to predict cognitive outcome and guide surgical decision-making. Whereas language fMRI is widely used, memory fMRI is less frequently employed in adult TLE, and lacking in childhood TLE. We have developed a combined language/memory fMRI paradigm that is suitable for children, to provide clinically useful information for surgical planning in p...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionCNS disease is a severe but rare complication in CVID disorders, particularly affecting patients with other noninfectious disease symptoms. Diagnostic evaluation needs to rule out infectious causes by all means; a genetic evaluation is recommended given the high probability of an underlying monogenic disorder. Possible treatment consists of steroids with yet to be determined optimal maintenance therapy in case of relapse.
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
There has been increasing interest in the clinical and experimental use of memory functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The 2017 American Academy of Neurology practice guidelines on the use of pre-surgical cognitive fMRI suggests that verbal memory fMRI could be used to lateralize memory functions in people with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) and should be used to predict post-operative verbal memory outcome. There are however technical and methodological considerations, to optimize both the sensitivity and specificity of this imaging modality. Below we discuss these constraints and suggest recommendations to conside...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Cost-Effectiveness of Advanced Imaging Technologies in the Presurgical Workup of Epilepsy. Epilepsy Curr. 2020 Jan 07;:1535759719894307 Authors: Kwon CS, Chang EF, Jetté N Abstract The cost-effectiveness and benefit of many diagnostic tests used in the presurgical evaluation for persons with epilepsy is for the most part uncertain as is their influence on decision-making. The options we have at our disposal are ever increasing. Advanced imaging modalities aim to improve surgical candidacy by helping us better define the epileptogenic zone and optimize surgical planning. However, judicious ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research
ConclusionScurvy can no longer be considered a historical diagnosis and should not be forgotten when evaluating children with musculoskeletal ailments. Early recognition of the signs, symptoms, and imaging findings of scurvy can reduce the clinical burden of this disease with the timely initiation of vitamin C therapy.
Source: Osteoporosis International - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
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