Lysosomal peptidases in innate immune cells: implications for cancer immunity

AbstractCathepsins are lysosomal peptidases involved in intracellular protein catabolism as well as in various other physiological and pathological processes. Several members of the family, most notably cathepsins B, S, K and L, are frequently overexpressed in cancer and have been associated with remodeling of the proteins of the extracellular matrix, a process leading to tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. In addition, lysosomal cathepsins play a role in innate and adaptive immunity, regulation of antigen presentation, Toll-like receptor signaling, cytokine secretion, apoptosis, autophagy, differentiation, migration and cytotoxicity. In cancer, the cells of innate immunity, such as myeloid cells, are often subverted to the regulatory immunosuppressive phenotype. Most studies indicate that lysosomal cathepsins reinforce the pro-tumoral activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor-associated macrophages as well as of neutrophils. On the other hand, in cytotoxic natural killer cells, tumor cells suppress lysosomal peptidases in their activation of perforin and granzymes, thus diminishing their killing ability. With multifaceted actions, lysosomal peptidases constitute an important regulatory mechanism for fine-tuning the anti-tumor immune response.
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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