Experiences of parents of children born with microcephaly during the Zika epidemic following disclosure of the diagnosis.

This article aims to understand how parents of children with microcephaly received the diagnosis. This qualitative study was conducted at State Referral Center for Children's Neurodevelopment, Care, and Rehabilitation (NINAR) in São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil, from April 2017 to February 2018. Participants in the study included parents or guardians of children with microcephaly. Data collection included structured and semi-structured interviews with 3 couples, 16 mothers, and 1 great-grandmother, totaling 20 interviews. The sample was defined by the saturation criterion, and content analysis was performed according to the thematic modality. Eighteen interviewees reported that the diagnosis had been disclosed to them inappropriately and traumatically, sometimes linked to a sense of "end of life" and dissociated from orientation on ways to cope with the situation and care for the child. The diagnosis of microcephaly was disclosed by physicians in 15 of the 20 cases. Three other cases were disclosed as follows: one by a nurse, one by the mother-in-law (who had learned of the diagnosis from the physician), and one by a health department employee. The other two did not receive the diagnosis: one couple learned of the microcephaly from the infant's Certificate of Life Birth and the other associated the child's problem with information broadcast on the media. Three thematic lines were analyzed: omission of the diagnosis; process of disclosure of the ...
Source: Cadernos de Saude Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Cad Saude Publica Source Type: research

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(Charit é - Universit ä tsmedizin Berlin) New viruses which cause diseases often come from animals. Well-known examples of this are the Zika virus transmitted by mosquitoes, bird flu viruses, as well as the MERS virus which is associated with camels. In order to identify new viral diseases quickly and prevent possible epidemics, DZIF scientists at Charit é - Universit ä tsmedizin Berlin are targeting their search at viruses in animals. In a current study, they have now discovered hundreds of novel viruses in insects.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Abstract Humoral immunity is an essential component of the protective immune response to flavivirus infection. Typically, primary infection generates a robust neutralizing antibody response that mediates viral control and protection. It is becoming increasingly apparent that secondary infection with a closely related flavivirus strain can result in immunological cross-reactivity; however, the consequences to infection outcome remain controversial. Since its introduction to Brazil in 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused an epidemic of fetal congenital malformations within the Americas. Because ZIKV is a mosquito...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research
Asisa Volz In 2015 Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged for the first time in South America. The following ZIKV epidemic resulted in the appearance of a clinical phenotype with microcephaly and other severe malformations in newborns. So far, mechanisms of ZIKV induced damage to the fetus are not completely understood. Previous data suggest that ZIKV may bypass the placenta to reach the fetus. Thus, animal models for ZIKV infection are important to facilitate studies about ZIKV infection during pregnancy. Here, we used ultrasound based imaging (USI) to characterize ZIKV induced pathogenesis in the pregnant Type I interferon recep...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is a negative sense RNA virus from the Flaviviridae family, which was relatively unknown until the first human epidemic in Micronesia, in 2007. Since its spread to French Polynesia and the Americas. Recife, the capital of Pernambuco state and epicenter of the Zika epidemic in Brazil, experienced a large number of microcephaly cases and other congenital abnormalities associated to the ZIKV infection from, 2015 to 16. Evidences suggest that both Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from Recife are capable of replicating and transmitting the virus. Here, we conducted high thr...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
ConclusionIn scenarios where human surveillance is not possible or when transmission intensity is very low, virological surveillance inAe.aegypti may be able to detect and monitor ZIKV epidemic activity. However, surveillance for humans seeking care for Zika-like symptoms likely provides an equivalent or more sensitive indicator of transmission intensity in most circumstances.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
by Michel J. Counotte, Christian L. Althaus, Nicola Low, Julien Riou The 2015–2017 epidemics of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas caused widespread infection, followed by protective immunity. The timing and burden of the next Zika virus outbreak remains unclear. We used an agent-based model to simulate the dynamics of age-specific immunity to ZIKV, and predict th e future age-specific risk using data from Managua, Nicaragua. We also investigated the potential impact of a ZIKV vaccine. Assuming lifelong immunity, the risk of a ZIKV outbreak will remain low until 2035 and rise above 50% in 2047. The imbalance in age-s...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractHuman challenge trials (HCTs) deliberately infect participants in order to test vaccines and treatments in a controlled setting, rather than enrolling individuals with natural exposure to a disease. HCTs are therefore potentially powerful tools to prepare for future outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases. Yet when an infectious disease is emerging, there is often substantial risk and uncertainty about its complications, and few available interventions, making an HCT ethically complex. In light of the need to consider ethical issues proactively as a part of epidemic preparedness, we use the case of a Zika virus H...
Source: Trials - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Publication date: Available online 16 December 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Michael W. Gaunt, Duane J. Gubler, John H.-O. Pettersson, Goro Kuno, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Xavier de Lamballerie, Ernest A. Gould, Andrew K. FalconarAbstractSporadic human Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been recorded in Africa and Asia since the 1950s. Major epidemics occurred only after ZIKV emerged in the Pacific islands and spread to the Americas. Specific biological determinants of the explosive epidemic nature of ZIKV have not been identified. Phylogenetic studies revealed incongruence in ZIKV placement in relation to Aedes-bor...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Source: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Published: 12/17/2019. This issue brief, updated in December 2019, discusses how attention to global health security - efforts to help prepare for and address pandemic and epidemic diseases - has grown significantly over the past few decades, driven by the ongoing threat posed by emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), including HIV, SARS, influenza, Ebola, and Zika. It details the U.S. Government's efforts in global health security, and the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA), with agency activity descriptions. (Text)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 1164: Zika Virus Surveillance at the Human–Animal Interface in West-Central Brazil, 2017–2018 Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11121164 Authors: Pauvolid-Corrêa Gonçalves Dias Siqueira Maia Porfírio Oliveira Morgado Sabino-Santos Santa Rita Teixeira Barreto Carvalho de Macedo Marinho Torres Arruda Gimenes Nantes Martins Santos Oliveira de Assis Castro Rucco Mamoru dos Santos Yui Bosco Vilela Campos e Rodrigues Silva da Silva Ferreira Aparecido Neves de Souza Costa Ramos Martins Marques Souza dos Santos Carval...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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