Unveiling the tale of the tail: an illustration of spinal dysraphisms

AbstractSpinal dysraphism is an umbrella term describing herniation of meninges or neural elements through defective neural arch. They can be broadly categorized into open and closed types. MRI is the investigation of choice to study neural abnormalities and to assess the severity of hydrocephalus and Chiari malformation. Knowledge of the embryology of these disorders is valuable in correctly identifying the type of dysraphism. The aim of surgery is untethering and dural reconstruction. Accurate depiction of the abnormal anatomy in cases of spinal dysraphism is of utmost importance for surgical management of these patients. MRI makes this possible due to its excellent soft tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar capability, allowing the radiologist to evaluate the intricate details in small pediatric spinal structures. Imaging enlightens the surgeons about the status of spinal cord and other associated abnormalities and helps detect re-tethering in operated cases. Besides, antenatal surgery to repair myelomeningoceles has made detection of open dysraphisms on fetal MRI and antenatal ultrasound critical. The purpose of this review is to describe the development of spine, illustrate the myriad imaging features of open and closed spinal dysraphisms, and enlist the reporting points the operating surgeon seeks from the radiologist.
Source: Neurosurgical Review - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

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Source: British Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Journal of Clinical NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Hansen Deng, Ava M. Puccio, David O. OkonkwoAbstractBackgroundIn severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients undergoing decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC), the rate of post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is high at 12–36%. Early diagnosis and shunt placement can improve outcomes. Herein, we examined the incidence of and predictors of PTH after craniectomy.MethodsA retrospective analysis of prospectively collected database of severe TBI patients at a single U.S. Level 1 trauma center from May 200...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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Source: British Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractTo assess automated volumetric analysis as a potential presurgical diagnostic tool or as a method to potentially shed light on normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) pathophysiology. MRI imaging according to our protocol was performed in 29 NPH patients, 45 non-NPH (but suspected) patients and 15 controls. Twenty patients underwent a second MRI 3  months after ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery. All structures relevant to NPH diagnosis were automatically segmented using commercial software. The results were subsequently tested using ANOVA analysis. Significant differences in the volumes of the corpus callosu...
Source: Neurosurgical Review - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
The objective of the study was to examine selected aspects of the functioning of children treated for hydrocephalus, with particular emphasis on their degree of independence. Analysis of the medical records of patients treated for hydrocephalus in the Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery in Katowice in 2000 –2010. The Barthel scale was used to assess the children’s independence. Information on the children’s functioning was obtained directly from their parents using a questionnaire developed by the author. The parent group comprised 131 people, including 110 women (85%) and 21 men (15%). The stud y group ...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionThis is the second case who had twoFGFR3 variants in the transmembrane domain on the same allele. The p.S378N variant may provide an additive effect on the activating receptor with the p.G380R mutation and alter the protein function, which could be responsible for the severe phenotype of the present case.
Source: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
AbstractGuillain –Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute-onset, immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy, often precipitated by an antecedent infection. An association of GBS with vector-borne viral infections has been suggested, with evidence for the involvement of Zika, Dengue, Chikungunya and West Nile virus (WNV). Th is prospective case–control study was conducted to identify vector-borne viral infections in GBS. Thirteen individuals newly diagnosed as GBS were enrolled. Disease severity, prognostic factors and nerve conduction patterns were assessed. Eleven individuals with non-infectious conditions requiri...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Residual extraction approach in a deep learning method achieved a high accuracy for the differential diagnosis of iNPH, AD, and healthy controls trained with a small number of cases. PMID: 31969525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences : MRMS - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Magn Reson Med Sci Source Type: research
Conclusion: We present the application of a continuum robot with FTL motion to perform a combined ETV/ETB procedure. The validation study using human subject data indicated that the accuracy of FTL motion is relatively high. The study indicated that FTL motion may be useful tool for combined ETV and ETB.
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: IDCasesAuthor(s): Shawn Gerstein, Pranisha Gautam-Goyal, Sameer GoyalAbstractListeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacillus known to cause various human infections including central nervous system infections. The most common central nervous system manifestations are meningitis and rhomboencephalitis, however rare complications including hydrocephalus and intracerebral hemorrhage can occur and are associated with increased mortality and incidence of lasting neurologic sequelae. The mortality ranges from 17 % to greater than 30% in patients with neurological invol...
Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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