Neglected Agent Eminent Disease: Linking Human Helminthic Infection, Inflammation, and Malignancy

Helminthic parasitic infection is grossly prevalent across the globe and is considered a significant factor in human cancer occurrence induced by biological agents. Although only three helminths (Schistosoma haematobium, Clonorchis sinensis, and Opisthorchis viverrini) so far have been directly associated with carcinogenesis; there are evidence suggesting the involvement of other species too. Broadly, human helminthiasis can cause chronic inflammation, genetic instability, and host immune modulation by affecting inter- and intracellular communications, disruption of proliferation–anti-proliferation pathways, and stimulation of malignant stem cell progeny. These changes ultimately lead to tumor development through the secretion of soluble factors that interact with host cells. However, the detailed mechanisms by which helminths introduce and promote malignant transformation of host cells are still not clear. Here, we reviewed the current understanding of immune-pathogenesis of helminth parasites, which have been associated with carcinogenesis, and how these infections initiate carcinogenesis in the host.
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Contributors : Kim Eun-Min ; Yong Tai-SoonSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensA total of 1,301 differentially expressed genes were identified: 521 upregulated and 780 downregulated. Furthermore, p21 and PAI levels decreased, which coincided with decreases in E-cadherin and increases in fibronectin expression, in cells stimulated with Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products (ESPs) and NDMA. Cancer-related proteins, such as EGFR, K-ras, and PCNA, were significantly upregulated in cells exposed to C. sinensis ESPs and NDMA. Our results showed that C. sinensis ESPs an...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Abstract In 2005, the network decided to increase its number of target diseases to include other helminthic zoonoses such as fascioliasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis and in the process expanding membership to include South Korea, Vietnam, Thailand and Japan. NTDs were eventually included as awareness is heightened on these diseases affecting poor and developing countries. Researches on clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis unravel the mechanism by which these diseases eventually predispose to cholangiocarcinoma. The liver cancer associated with these liver fluke infections necessi...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Abstract Chronic infections with the food-borne liver flukes, Opisthorchis viverrini or Clonorchis sinensis, associate with cholangiocarcinoma, bile duct cancer, which generally has a poor prognosis. We have produced a rapid and simple immunochromatographic test (ICT) kit for the diagnosis of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis by the detection of IgG antibodies in human infection sera. Sera from volunteers with proven opisthorchiasis and several other parasitic diseases and from healthy controls were evaluated for the presence of liver fluke infection-specific antibodies using a preparation of excretory-secretory a...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Authors: Saijuntha W, Sithithaworn P, Kiatsopit N, Andrews RH, Petney TN Abstract Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and O. felineus are liver flukes of human and animal pathogens occurring across much of Europe and Asia. Nevertheless, they are often underestimated compared to other, better known neglected diseases in spite of the fact that many millions of people are infected and hundreds of millions are at risk. This is possibly because of the chronic nature of the infection and disease and that it takes several decades prior to a life-threatening pathology to develop. Several studies in the past decade...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Abstract The liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus, and Clonorchis sinensis are closely related fish-borne trematodes endemic in East Asia, Eurasia, and Siberia. Following ingestion, the parasites locate to the biliary tree, where chronic infection frequently leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Infection with O. felineus may also be carcinogenic. The mechanism(s) by which infection with these liver flukes culminates in CCA remain elusive, although they are likely to be mult...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn this review, we summarize the roles of snails in the life cycles of the parasites they host, the worldwide distribution of parasite-transmitting snails, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of snail-transmitted parasitic diseases, and the existing snail control measures, which will contribute to further understanding the snail-parasite relationship and new strategies for controlling snail-borne parasitic diseases.
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Clonorchis sinensis (family Opisthorchiidae) is an important foodborne parasite that has a major socioeconomic impact on ~35 million people predominantly in China, Vietnam, Korea and the Russian Far East. In humans, infection with C. sinensis causes clonorchiasis, a complex hepatobiliary disease that can induce cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a malignant cancer of the bile ducts. Central to understanding the epidemiology of this disease is knowledge of genetic variation within and among populations of this parasite. Although most published molecular studies seem to suggest that C. sinensis represents a single s...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research
Authors: Feng M, Cheng X Abstract Parasitic infection remains as a persistent public health problem and can be carcinogenic. Three helminth parasites, namely, Clonorchis sinensis (liver fluke) and Opisthorchis viverrini as well as Schistosoma haematobium (blood fluke), are classified as Group 1 carcinogens by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC Infection with liver flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis), World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2011). Infection by these parasites is frequently asympt...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Buisson Y Abstract The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified two liver flukes as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1): Opisthorchis viverrini in 1994 and Clonorchis sinensis in 2009. This review is focused on O. viverrini, the most studied of these two trematodes, which infects nearly 10 million people in Southeast Asia. The life cycle involves two intermediate hosts living in fresh water: a snail of the genus Bithynia and a ciprinid fish. The definitive hosts (human, cat, dog) become infected by ingesting raw fish containing metacercariae, the infective stage of the parasite. Adult...
Source: Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique - Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: Bull Soc Pathol Exot Source Type: research
Abstract Parasitic diseases remain an unarguable public health problem in the world. Liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis is a high risk pathogenic parasitic helminth endemic predominantly in Asian countries, including Korea, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and the far eastern part of Russia, which still actively transmitted. According to the last 8th National Survey on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in 2012, C. sinensis, whose prevalence was 1.86% in general population, revealed the highest prevalence parasite among all parasite species surveyed in Korea. This fluke is now classified in one of definite Grou...
Source: BMB Reports - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
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