Chronic stress, structural exposures and neurobiological mechanisms: A stimulation, discrepancy and deprivation model of psychosis

Publication date: Available online 5 December 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Teresa Vargas, Rachel E. Conley, Vijay A. MittalAbstractChronic stress exposure has been established as a key vulnerability factor for developing psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. A structural, or systems level perspective, has often been lacking in conceptualizations of chronic stress for psychotic disorders. The current review thus identified three subtypes of structural exposures. Stimulation exposures included urban environments, population density and crime exposure, with intermediary mechanisms of lack of safety and high attentional demands. Underlying neural mechanisms included threat neural circuits. Discrepancy exposures included environmental ethnic density, income inequality, and social fragmentation, with intermediary mechanisms of lack of belonging and social exclusion, and neural mechanisms including the oxytocin system. Deprivation exposures included environments lacking socioeconomic, educational, or material resources, with intermediary mechanisms of lack of needed environmental enrichment, and underlying neural mechanisms of over-pruning and protracted PFC development. Delineating stressor etiology at the systems level is a necessary step in reducing barriers to effective interventions and health policy.
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
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Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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Source: Psychiatria Polska - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatr Pol Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
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