Current and emerging bladder cancer biomarkers with an emphasis on urine biomarkers.
Current and emerging bladder cancer biomarkers with an emphasis on urine biomarkers. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2019 Dec 04;: Authors: Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L, Gevaert T, Blanca A, Cimadamore A, Santoni M, Massari F, Scarpelli M, Raspollini MR, Montironi R Abstract Introduction: Bladder cancer detection typically requires unpleasant and costly cystoscopy, a procedure potentially harmful and often accompanied by variable adverse effects. The use of urine analysis as a non-invasive method is of great scientific interest since it is enriched in tumor-related proteins, DNA and RNA which can provide a molecular landscape with multiple alterations identified in bladder cancer.Areas covered: Current sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FDA approved urine-based assays are still suboptimal with none of them routinely used by clinics. The recent introduction of RNA/DNA based bladder cancer tests, some of them commercially available, establishes a promising new horizon of clinical applicability.Expert opinion: There is growing evidence towards the use of minimally invasive "liquid biopsies" to identify biomarkers in urothelial malignancy. Urine has been identified as an optimal non-invasive source of proteins, DNA and RNA; therefore, it has been identified as a type of liquid biopsy likely to soon be routine clinical practice. Cell-free proteins and peptides, exosomes, cell-free DNA, methylated DNA and DNA mutations, circulating tumor cells, miR...
This report describes the case of a 20 years old man who was diagnosed with a mass involving the small intestine and bladder during the course of investigations for faecaluria and abdominal pain. Histopathological examination of the biopsies during cystoscopy revealed: muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma, while the computerized tomography scan had confirmed the enterovesical fistula.The patient was traited by Radical cystectomy with extended pelvic lymph node dissection and ileocecal resection as ultimate curative treatment.
Journal of Endourology, Ahead of Print.
Conclusion: The majority (80%) of recurrences in low-risk NMIBC occurred in the first 2 years. If the follow-up protocol described in the guidelines had been applied, patients with relapses would have a delay of at least 6 months of diagnosis. Therefore, even if there is no recurrence in the low-risk NMIBC at the 3rd and 9th months, it may be more appropriate to follow the cases in the first 2 years with follow-up cystoscopy every 3 months.
ConclusionAI-aided cystoscopy has the potential to outperform urologists at recognizing and classifying bladder lesions. To ensure their real-life implementation, however, these algorithms require external validation to generalize their results across other data sets.
In conclusion, S100A12 and EN2 have shown potential value as biomarker candidates for UCB patients. These results can speed up the discovery of biomarkers, improving diagnostic accuracy and may help the management of UCB.
Conclusion: The combined MRI and clinical staging for parametrial evaluation should still be carried out for the staging of cervical cancer. However, in the absence of the bladder and the rectal invasion in the MRI, it will be safe to avoid the need for a cystoscopy and/or sigmoidoscopy for complete staging in the majority of patients with cervical cancer. PMID: 31341909 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ConclusionCystoscopy-guided placement of hydrogel markers is both safe and feasible for muscle-invasive bladder tumors. Adequate performance for radiation purposes throughout the whole course (implantation, delineation and positional verification) was 46.7% of all implanted markers, leaving room for improvement.
In this study, we validate a test for NMIBC recurrence detection, using for technical validation a total of 331 urine samples and 41 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of the primary tumor and recurrence lesions from a large cluster of urology centers. In the clinical validation, we used 185 samples to assess sensitivity/specificity in the detection of NMIBC recurrence vs. cystoscopy/cytology and in a smaller cohort its potential as a primary diagnostic tool for NMIBC. Our results show this test to be highly sensitive (73.5%) and specific (93.2%) in detecting recurrence of BC in patients under surveillance of NMIBC.
To examine whether photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) in addition to flexible cystoscopy in the outpatient clinic can reduce risk of tumor recurrence in patients with previous nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. PDD is an optical technique that enhances the visibility of pathologic tissue and helps guidance tumor resection.
To examine whether Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) in addition to flexible cystoscopy in the outpatient clinic can reduce risk of tumour recurrence in patients with previous non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). PDD is an optical technique that enhances the visibility of pathological tissue and helps guidance tumour resection.