Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 1127: Genetic Characteristics and Pathogenicity Analysis in Chickens and Mice of Three H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses

In this study, three H9N2 viruses isolated from chickens in different layer farms were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these H9N2 viruses were all multiple genotype reassortants, with genes originating from Y280-like, F/98-like, and G1-like viruses. Animal studies indicated that the AV1535 and AV1548 viruses replicated efficiently in the lungs, tracheas, spleens, kidneys, and brains of chickens; the viruses shed for at least 11 days post-inoculation (DPI) and were transmitted efficiently among contact chickens. The AV1534 virus replicated poorly in chickens, shed for 7 DPI, and were not transmitted efficiently among contact chickens. The AV1534 virus replicated well in mice lungs and caused about 2% weight loss. The AV1535 and AV1548 viruses were not able to replicate in the lungs of mice. Our results indicate that we should pay attention to H9N2 avian influenza virus surveillance in poultry and changes in the pathogenicity of them to mammals.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology, Volume 174Author(s): C. Bianco, A. Nunez, P. Sanchez-Cordon, R. Hansen, S. Reid, S. Jeckel, I.H. Brown, S. Thomas, C. Poulos, S.M. Brooks
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology, Volume 174Author(s): S.A. Bergervoet, S. Vreman, R. Zwart, N. Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. Beerens
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
AbstractPrevious studies of fetal death with maternal influenza have been inconsistent. We explored the effect of maternal influenza-like illness (ILI) in pregnancy on the risk of fetal death, distinguishing between diagnoses during regular influenza seasons and the 2009/2010 pandemic and between trimesters of ILI. We used birth records from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to identify fetal deaths after the first trimester in singleton pregnancies (2006 –2013). The Norwegian Directorate of Health provided dates of clinical influenza diagnoses by primary-health-care providers, whereas dates of laboratory-confirme...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were first identified in the spring of 2013 in China,1 causing more human infections than any other avian influenza A virus.2 As of July 1, 2019, a total of 1568 laboratory-confirmed human cases, including 616 deaths, have been reported to the World Health Organization (WHO), primarily from China.3,4 During 2016-2017, A(H7N9) virus spread among poultry across China, and 30 out of 34 provinces reported human infections.5 Moreover, A(H7N9) virus strains continue to evolve and have diverged into two main lineages, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) lineages.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
In conclusion, the two-tubes-per-one-sample approach was more reliable to control the false negative results in H5 RT-RPA assay.
Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
In this study, we developed a novel primer/probe set that can be employed to simultaneously detect pan-H5 HPAI and two clades, 2.3.2.1 and 2.3.4.4, of H5Nx viruses using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The sensitivity and specificity of these primer sets and probes were confirmed with a number of different subtypes of influenza virus and the H5-HA gene plasmid DNA. In particular, the multiplex RT-qPCR assay was successfully applied to the simultaneous detection of H5 HPAI and different virus clades in clinical field samples from a poultry farm. Therefore, this multiplex assay and a n...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
xandersen The present study reports the genetic characterization of a low-pathogenicity H9N2 avian influenza virus, initially from a pool and subsequently from individual faecal samples collected from Chestnut teals (Anas castanea) in southeastern Australia. Phylogenetic analyses of six full gene segments and two partial gene segments obtained from next-generation sequencing showed that this avian influenza virus, A/Chestnut teal/Australia/CT08.18/12952/2018 (H9N2), was a typical, low-pathogenicity, Eurasian aquatic bird lineage H9N2 virus, albeit containing the North American lineage nucleoprotein (NP) gene segment de...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
This study reports a self-calibrating dual-electrode based electrochemical aptasensor for the reliable and independent detection of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), which are the primary cause of highly contagious respiratory diseases, under external interference factors. Both electrodes were fabricated using tungsten rods surface-modified with a 3D nanostructured porous silica film (3DNRE). Subsequently, methylene blue (MB) was loaded as a redox-active material into the pores and capped with corresponding aptamer. One electrode was capped with an anti-AIV nucleoprotein (NP) aptamer (AptAIV-MB@3DNRE) allowing target-specifi...
Source: Biosensors and Bioelectronics - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
We report the use of environmental samples to assess avian influenza virus activity in chickens at live poultry markets in China. Results of environmental and chicken samples correlate moderately well. However, collection of multiple environmental samples from holding, processing, and selling areas is recommended to detect viruses expected to have low prevalence. PMID: 31922954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research
Abstract Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been used as a vector in the development of vaccines and gene delivery. In the present study, we generated the thermostable recombinant NDV (rNDV) expressing the different forms of hemagglutinin (HA) of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 based on the full-length cDNA clone of thermostable TS09-C strain. The recombinant thermostable Newcastle disease viruses, rTS-HA, rTS-HA1 and rTS-tPAs/HA1, expressed the HA, HA1 or modified HA1 protein with the tissue plasminogen activator signal sequence (tPAs), respectively. The rNDVs displayed similar thermostability...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
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