The impact of systemic precision medicine and immunotherapy treatments on brain metastases.

The impact of systemic precision medicine and immunotherapy treatments on brain metastases. Oncotarget. 2019 Nov 19;10(62):6739-6753 Authors: Han RH, Dunn GP, Chheda MG, Kim AH Abstract Metastases from melanoma, lung and breast cancer are among the most common causes of intracranial malignancy. Standard of care for brain metastases include a combination of surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery, and whole-brain radiation. However, evidence continues to accumulate regarding the efficacy of molecularly-targeted systemic treatments and immunotherapy. For non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), numerous clinical trials have demonstrated intracranial activity for inhibitors of EGFR and ALK. Patients with melanoma brain metastases may benefit from systemic therapy using BRAF-inhibitors with and without trametinib. Several targeted options are available for breast cancer brain metastases that overexpress HER2, although agents with intracranial activity are still needed for other molecular subtypes. Immune checkpoint inhibitors including anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies are yielding impressive responses in intracranial manifestations of metastatic melanoma and NSCLC. Given the promising early results with these emerging therapies, management of eligible patients will require increased multidisciplinary discussion incorporating novel systemic treatment approaches prior or in addition to local therapy. PMID: 31803366 [PubMed]
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

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We present a case where nocardial abscesses of lung and brain were initially suspected as lung cancer with brain metastases. The patient was treated with a combination of surgical resection and antimicrobial therapy with good outcome. PMID: 31969769 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Clinica Croatica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Clin Croat Source Type: research
PROGNOSTIC ROLE OF CD44 EXPRESSION AND NEOVASCULARIZATION DETERMINED BY ENDOGLIN (CD105) IN GLIOBLASTOMA PATIENTS. Acta Clin Croat. 2019 Sep;58(3):455-462 Authors: Mihić J, Rotim K, Vučić M, Hude Dragičević I, Borić M, Lugović-Mihić L Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans. Clinically useful molecular markers that help predict response to therapy and prognosis are still rare. The research was conducted in 55 patients with GBM, 26 (47.3%) women and 29 (52.7%) men, mean age 62.58 years. On immunohistochemical analysis,...
Source: Acta Clinica Croatica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Clin Croat Source Type: research
MEAN PLATELET VOLUME: AN OVERLOOKED HERALD OF MALIGNANT THYROID NODULES. Acta Clin Croat. 2019 Sep;58(3):417-420 Authors: Sit M, Aktas G, Ozer B, Kocak MZ, Erkus E, Erkol H, Yaman S, Savli H Abstract Physicians and surgeons pay much attention to evaluating thyroid nodules due to the malignant potential of these growths. Inflammation has a crucial role in the development of cancer. Increase in the mean platelet volume (MPV) has been described in various inflammatory conditions. Since some of thyroid nodules are malignant, we aimed to compare MPV values between patients with malignant and benign thyroid ...
Source: Acta Clinica Croatica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Clin Croat Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: LWTAuthor(s): Xin-Yun Wang, Jing XieAbstractAcinetobacter johnsonii and Pseudomonas fluorescens are specific spoilage microorganisms (SSO) of aquatic products, and their metabolites are effective indicators for analyzing these two SSOs. However, the metabolome of a coculture of A. johnsonii and P. fluorescens is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolomic changes in A. johnsonii, P. fluorescens, and their co-culture by screening for metabolic markers. PCA and PLS-DA revealed that A, P, and AP groups were different from each other, indicat...
Source: LWT Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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Source: Gut Microbes - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract In mammals, DNA methyltransferases transfer a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 5 position of cytosine in DNA. The product of this reaction, 5-methylcytosine (5mC), has many roles, particularly in suppressing transposable and repeat elements in DNA. Moreover, in many cellular systems, cell lineage specification is accompanied by DNA demethylation at the promoters of genes expressed at high levels in the differentiated cells. However, since direct cleavage of the C-C bond connecting the methyl group to the 5 position of cytosine is thermodynamically disfavoured, the question of whether DNA meth...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research
Abstract The tumor microenvironment is marked by gradients in the level of oxygen and nutrients, with oxygen levels reaching a minimum at the core of the tumor, a condition known as tumor hypoxia. Mediated by members of the HIF family of transcription factors, hypoxia leads to a more aggressive tumor phenotype by transactivation of several genes as well as reprogramming of pre-mRNA splicing. Intragenic DNA methylation, which is known to affect alternative splicing in cancer, could be one of several reasons behind the changes in splicing patterns under hypoxia. Here, we have tried to establish a correlation between...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research
Abstract Accumulating evidences indicate the involvement of epigenetic deregulations in cancer. While some epigenetic regulators with aberrant functions in cancer are targeted for improving therapeutic outcome in patients, reinstating the functions of tumor-suppressor-like epigenetic regulators might further potentiate anti-cancer therapies. Epigenetic reader zinc-finger MYND-type-containing 8 (ZMYND8) has been found to be endowed with multiple anti-cancer functions like inhibition of tumor cell migration and proliferation. Here, we report another novel tumor suppressor role of ZMYND8 as an inducer of differentiat...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research
In conclusion, the present study paves the way to elucidate the potential anticancer ionic liquids.
Source: Journal of Molecular Liquids - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of our review is to describe the rationale for immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM), the current landscape of clinical trials for this disease process, and possible future directions based on anticipated results.Recent FindingsImmune checkpoint inhibition has shown efficacy in the treatment of several solid tumor brain metastases (i.e., melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer), but data specific to BCBM is relatively sparse. Preclinical studies in BCBM have illustrated a lower immune content in the brain microenvironment measured by tumor-infiltrating lym...
Source: Current Breast Cancer Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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