Lung T-Cell Profile Alterations are Associated with Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Transplant Recipients

AbstractThe contribution of T-cells after lung transplant (LTx) remains controversial with no current consensus of their role concerning chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Using flow cytometry to assess T-cell subsets of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in 16 cystic fibrosis (CF) LTx recipients, we identified a decline in CD4+ T-cell frequency and an increase in CD8+ T-cell frequency in patients who developed severe bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) (N = 10) when comparing baseline (6 months post-LTx) and follow-up (most recent bronchoscopy—clinical or surveillance per protocol). Comparing BOS to No BOS cohorts, significant differences were found in CD4+ T-cell frequency [17.4 (12.5, 28.2) vs 46.6 (44.4, 48.4),p = 0.003] and CD8+ T-cell frequency [65.6 (62.8, 75.3) vs 39.2 (32.2, 43.3),p = 0.014], respectively. The mean difference of the CD4:CD8 ratio was 0.87 units lower (95% CI − 1.44 to − 0.30,p = 0.006) than patients without BOS, while the median difference of the CD4:CD8 ratio was 0.92 units lower (95% CI − 1.83 to − 0.009,p = 0.048). Therefore, our results suggest that T-cell profiles measured through flow cytometry of BALF in the CF LTx population are associated with the development of severe BOS. Further work is needed in larger patient populations to validate our findings and to determine if this is useful for recipients who underwent LTx for other indic...
Source: Lung - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

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Conclusions: Of those patients deemed suitable for therapy, TLI was well tolerated with the majority of complications being minor and not leading to cessation of treatment. Therapy is associated with a significant slowing in the rate of decline in lung function impacting overall survival.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Transplantation Source Type: research
As of October, 2019 Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series contain details of 69,204 epidemiological surveys – of which 1,107 (1.6%) are related to the prevalence of specific viral species in patients with respiratory tract infection.  [1-3] The following chronology of published studies summarizes the relative proportion of viral agents associated with non-influenza childhood respiratory infection in the United States.  Additional details and primary references are available on request. 1976 – 2001 Tennessee hMPV accounted for 20% of acute respiratory illness among children ages 0 to...
Source: GIDEON blog - Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Tags: Ebooks Epidemiology ProMED Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, circulating MDSCs are measurable, functional and have a G-MDSC phenotype in lung transplant patients. Their frequency is increased in stable patients, decreased during post-transplant complications, and related to level of immunosuppression. This study may pave the way for further investigations of MDSC in the context of lung transplantation. Introduction From a transplant immunological point of view, graft acceptance is the fundamental element in allograft survival. Graft acceptance is realized by blocking the immune system with immunosuppression preventing host immune cells to recognized and attack...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCough becomes a pathologic reflex when the airways are inflamed and overwhelmed with excessive mucus. The goal of this review is to discuss acute and chronic cough syndromes caused by non-asthmatic airway diseases.Recent FindingsAcute cough syndrome is short-lived and self-limited. Acute bronchitis and diffuse acute infectious bronchiolitis (DAIB) are examples. The former is usually caused by a viral illness; the latter byMycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza, andHaemophilus influenzae. Causes of chronic cough in the adult include chronic bronchitis, non-infectious bronchiolitis, and non-cystic fibrosis...
Source: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Jennifer M. Rudd1, Sivasami Pulavendran1, Harshini K. Ashar1, Jerry W. Ritchey1, Timothy A. Snider1, Jerry R. Malayer1, Montelongo Marie1, Vincent T. K. Chow2 and Teluguakula Narasaraju1* 1Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, United States2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore Exaggerated host innate immune responses have been implicated in severe influenza pneumonia. We have previously demonstrated that excessive neutrophils recruited during in...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study is complemented by another report that found that hRSV infection induces significant expression of three miRNAs, namely hsa-miR-4448, hsa-miR-30a-5p, and hsa-miR-4634 in human DCs (104). Interestingly, this latter study also performed comparative analyses of miRNA profiles between DCs infected with hRSV and a related virus, namely the human metapneumovirus, and found that both viruses induced the expression of elevated levels of hsa-miR-4634. Elucidating the contribution of these miRNAs in DCs in response to hRSV remains to be determined. Dendritic Cell Phenotype and Migration Upon hRSV Infection in vivo Altho...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Introduction: The presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPM) in Non-CFBQ is frequent and determines prognostic and therapeutic aspects. Our objective has been to know what factors are associated with the isolation of PPM in this type of bronchiectasis.Methods: Prospective observational study of patients with Non-CFBQ (2006-2014). We collected all the PPM isolates at the time of inclusion establishing three groups (A: absence of PPM, B: isolates other than Pseudomonas and C: isolates of Pseudomonas). A comparative analysis of the differential characteristics between these groups was carried out.Results: We incl...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research
Background: Although progress has been made in the standardized interpretation of nocturnal oximetry in children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), no evidence exists on how to score oximetry in other respiratory disorders.Aims: To compare measures of nocturnal oxyhemoglobin desaturation in obstructive lung disease (OLD: cystic fibrosis; obliterative bronchiolitis; bronchopulmonary dysplasia) and SDB.Methods: Nocturnal oximetry was performed in children aged>1 yr with: (i) OLD; (ii) snoring and adenotonsillar hypertrophy and/or obesity; and (iii) no respiratory disorder (controls). Outcomes were: (i) oxy...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Paediatric respiratory physiology and sleep Source Type: research
Conclusions: Patients with CF after LT have a reduced maximal exercise capacity without ventilatory or cardiac limitations that persists despite the rehabilitative activity. Our findings showing a low work "efficiency" (low work/VO2 slope) suggest that the reduced exercise capacity could be attributable to muscle-related abnormality in oxygen metabolism in peripheral muscle
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Cystic fibrosis Source Type: research
Background: acute bronchiolitis is frequently diagnosed in infants, involves small airways. It’s often followed by recurrent wheeze. Lung Clearance Index(LCI) is a marker of VI derived from MBW test. It’s more sensible than spirometry indices to detect abnormalities inperipheral lung regions and is easy to obtain also in young children.Aims: analyze and compare MBW indices among children previously hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis (PB), age-matched healthy controls (HC) and Cystic Fibrosis (CF) children.Methods: Prospective longitudinal study including PB children hospitalized in our Emergency Department 5-...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Paediatric respiratory infection and immun. Source Type: research
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