The Latest on Cellular Senescence in Type 2 Diabetes
One of the more unexpected recent findings relating to cellular senescence is that it appears to be an important part of the mechanisms that lead to loss of the pancreatic β-cells responsible for insulin secretion in both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes - which are very different conditions, despite the shared name. The authors of the brief open access commentary noted here discuss the present state of this research. Age is one of the major risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, the understanding of how cellular aging contributes to diabetes pathogenesis is incomplete and as a result, current therapies do not target this aspect of the disease. In recent work we showed that insulin resistance induced the expression of aging markers, suggesting that β-cell aging could accelerate the progression toward diabetes. Therefore, reversing the hallmarks of cellular aging presents a potential avenue for novel T2D therapies; in particular, transcriptomic analysis of aged β-cells pointed us toward cellular senescence as a promising target. Senescent cells enter a state of long-term growth inhibition and replicative arrest after exposure to environmental insults, including genomic damage, oncogene activation, and reactive oxygen species. The resulting changes in gene expression impair cell function and proliferation while modifying intercellular signaling through the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). T...
Purpose: To separately evaluate the three retinal capillary plexuses and the choriocapillaris in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) Type 1 and Type 2, without clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: The study was prospective and cross-sectional. Only patients with age ≤55 years were included. We used a swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography device (Triton; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) to obtain both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the retinal capillary plexuses (superficial capillary plexus; middle capillary plexus; and deep capillary plexus) and the choriocapillaris. Results: We incl...
ConclusionDisease cost analyses in hospitals are required in order to prioritize healthcare services, use resources efficiently and decrease the financial burden of diseases on the society.
In conclusion, all patients with DM should be undergo recommended age- and sex appropriate cancer screenings to promote primary prevention and early detection. Furthermore, cancer should be screened in routine diabetes assessment. PMID: 31902143 [PubMed - in process]
Although the improved control of hyperglycaemia and other cardiovascular risk factors was associated with a parallel decline of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and death in both type 1 (T1) and type 2 (T2) diabetes mellitus (DM), the burden of death and hospitalization for ASCVD remains significantly higher by about 2-fold versus the matched non-DM population. Life style interventions, such as physical activity and healthy diet, and drugs, such as statins and low-dose aspirin, may have beneficial effects by targeting one or multiple pathways responsible for accelerated atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications.
The year 2021 will mark 100 years since the discovery of insulin. The discovery of insulin and the start of insulin therapy represent a marvelous multidisciplinary team effort that profoundly transformed the lives of people with diabetes mellitus (DM). Insulin treatment substantially extended the very short life span and health span of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). It was further shown that insulin action is lower (insulin resistance [IR]) in obesity and that IR in combination with insufficient insulin secretion is the underpinning of type 2 diabetes (T2D) stimulated momentous research on ways to enhance insulin action.
With the increasing rates of childhood obesity, many women of child-bearing age are receiving a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at a younger age. Our aim was to analyze a contemporary cohort of women with diabetes mellitus by type of disease for characteristics and perinatal outcomes.
To evaluate fetal anomalies in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Microvascular ResearchAuthor(s): Patricia P. Wadowski, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Thomas Gremmel, Renate Koppensteiner, Peter Wolf, Sebastian Ertl, Constantin Weikert, Christian Schörgenhofer, Bernd JilmaAbstractDiabetes is associated with micro- and macrovascular complications. The aim of the study was to investigate microvascular parameters (glycocalyx dimensions, perfused and total capillary density) in vivo in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.In vivo sublingual videomicroscopy using sidestream darkfield - derived imaging was performed in 36...
CONCLUSION: Currently, advances in the genetics field allowed the recognition of new DM subtypes, which until now, were considered slight variations of the typical forms. Thus, it is imperative to act in the close interaction between genetics and clinical manifestations, to facilitate diagnosis and individualize treatment. PMID: 31886753 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Conclusions Supporting the mechanisms of NO bioavailability via exogenous application of iNOS and L-arginine significantly attenuated I/R-induced alterations in a skin flap rat model. This pharmacologic preconditioning could be an easy and effective interventional strategy to uphold conversation of L-arginine to NO even on ischemic and type 1 diabetic conditions.