Topical delivery of long-acting antiretrovirals to prevent HIV acquisition

Purpose of review Although tremendous successes in HIV treatment and prevention have occurred in the past decade, existing HIV prevention options are inadequate, unacceptable or inaccessible to many. Topical antiretroviral-based preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) options may offer effective, long-acting prevention to those who do not desire systemic exposure to anti-HIV drugs or who want greater control over their own prevention. Recent findings Among long-acting topical PrEP agents, the dapivirine vaginal ring has advanced the furthest in product development; recent studies have shown high adherence and persistence and evidence of HIV protection in open-label studies as well as a well tolerated safety profile, across the life cycle in women. A range of other long-acting topical PrEP products for vaginal or rectal drug delivery are under development. Rigorous end-user research has explored how to develop products that are behaviorally congruent for the population at risk and has shown that no single product option will be desired by all, but rather different options will achieve the greatest prevention coverage. Summary Topically delivered, long-acting antiretroviral PrEP options are being designed to align with user preferences and lifestyles, providing the potential to more effectively expand the HIV prevention method mix and use and achieve an important impact on HIV globally.
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: LONG ACTING ART FOR TREATMENT AND PREVENTION: Edited by Martin Markowitz Source Type: research

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The objective of this study was to validate the therapeutic potential of magnetic nanoparticle/alternating magnetic field (MNP/AMF) hyperthermia in combination with conventional antibiotics against biofilm infection.Materials and methods: The impact of MNP/AMF hyperthermia on the viability of S. aureus biofilm in the absence and presence of antibiotics as well as on the bactericidal activity of macrophages were evaluated at varying conditions of MNPs concentration and AMF intensity using in vitro cell culture models.Results: The application of MNP/AMF alone at a CEM43 thermal dose below the threshold for skin tissue exhibi...
Source: International Journal of Hyperthermia - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Int J Hyperthermia Source Type: research
Dr. William “Billy” Cunningham, professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and health policy and management at the Fielding School of Public Health, died Jan. 2 in Los Angeles at the age of 60.A UCLA faculty member for 27 years, Cunningham was known for his rigorous approach to research and his passion for knowledge. He was focused on addressing racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities and implementing solutions, including efforts to recruit and mentor underrepresented minority trainees to UCLA ’s educational programs.“Dr. Cunningham was a true friend, outstand...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Source: AIDS Care - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Source: AIDS Care - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Balancing risks of immune suppressive medications against risk of chronic disease is challenging for clinicians and families. Available aids commonly lack comparative information needed to inform treatment decisions. We developed a simple video aid to illustrate competing risks associated with medications and underlying disease in context of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Those who viewed the video aid had more realistic risk perceptions than those who did not view it. The video aid is adaptable for other conditions. It required only commonly accessible software and little cost, thereby making an aid of this style a...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Short Communication: Gastroenterology: Inflammatory Bowel Disease Source Type: research
Contributors : E A Mesri ; J Naipauer ; M C AbbaSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Mus musculusKaposi's sarcoma (KS), is an AIDS-associated neoplasm caused by the KS herpesvirus (KSHV). A mouse model of KSHV-dependent tumorigenicity, allowed us to induce KSHV viral-episome loss following tumor development to test the plausibility of “hit and run” mechanism by KSHV. RNA-seq-transcriptome analysis and CpG-methylation were performed on KSHV positive cells, KSHV positive tumors and tumors that developed following viral-episome loss. During KSHV tumorigenesis, hypo-methylation...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research
This report says diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2 remain low in the United States, and the current HIV testing approach could be updated to streamline efficiencies.
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Category: American Health Tags: HIV/AIDS MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Source Type: news
Funding Opportunity RFA-CA-20-016 from the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts. The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to advance our understanding of the role of the tumor niche or microenvironment in the risks, development, progression, and diagnosis of cancer observed in individuals with an underlying HIV infection or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The proposed research areas identify two main areas that most likely control the major activities for establishing and maintaining the tumor niche: the role of the AIDS retrovirus and the response of the host to HIV infection. These areas o...
Source: NIH Funding Opportunities (Notices, PA, RFA) - Category: Research Source Type: funding
Authors: Phanuphak N, Jantarapakde J, Himmad L, Sungsing T, Meksena R, Phomthong S, Phoseeta P, Tongmuang S, Mingkwanrungruang P, Meekrua D, Sukthongsa S, Hongwiangchan S, Upanun N, Jirajariyavej S, Jadwattanakul T, Barisri S, Pankam T, Phanuphak P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Online, supervised, HIV self-testing has potential to reach men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) who never tested before and who had high HIV-positive yield. We studied linkages to HIV confirmatory test and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among Thai MSM and TGW who chose online and/or offline platforms for HIV testing...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The HIV self-testing programme identified persons with newly diagnosed HIV infection at low cost, and the programme is cost saving. PMID: 31960580 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
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