New typhoid fever vaccine protects young children

(Reuters Health) - The first field trial of a new typhoid vaccine that can be used in young children provides protection for 81.6% of recipients, opening the door to better control of a disease that affects 11 million people each year and kills roughly 117,000.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

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Abstract Typhoid fever remains an important public health problem in low- and middle-income countries, with large outbreaks reported from Africa and Asia. Although the WHO recommends typhoid vaccination for control of confirmed outbreaks, there are limited data on the epidemiologic characteristics of outbreaks to inform vaccine use in outbreak settings. We conducted a literature review for typhoid outbreaks published since 1990. We found 47 publications describing 45,215 cases in outbreaks occurring in 25 countries from 1989 through 2018. Outbreak characteristics varied considerably by WHO region, with median outb...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
by Eun Young Lee, Ju Yeon Park, Deok-Ryun Kim, Manki Song, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe, Hun Kim, Yun Chon, Jae Seung YangSalmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a causative agent for typhoid fever and especially critical in developing countries. Although clinical studies for various typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) have been performed, there are no comparative data on the immune responses of vaccines due to lack of harmonization of the serological assay. Recently, Typbar-TCV (Vi-TT) was prequalified by WHO and recommended for vaccination in endemic areas. Forty-eight serum samples were selected from a recent Vi-DT phas...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Pakistan is facing the world's largest outbreak of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhoid. Vaccination campaign for children aged 6 months to 10 years old with Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (Typbar-TCV®) was conducted in high-risk areas of Hyderabad during 2018. About 207,000 children were vaccinated. Here we report the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) during the campaign. The campaign was carried out using outreach and fixed centre strategy. Community mobilizers visited each household to perform line listing and mobilize parents with age-eligible children. Children were observed f...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
The objective of this research was to generate the evidence on the private sector's contribution to overall immunization coverage for selected pediatric vaccines in India. Using IMS Health's (now IQVIA) vaccine sales audit data and innovative methodological approach we estimated private-sector vaccine share in the total immunization coverage across selected pediatric vaccines in India. Our estimates suggest that private sector remains an important contributor to immunization services in India not only for Universal Immunization Program vaccines (Bacillus Calmette–Guérin [19.23%], HiB pentavalent [11....
Source: Indian Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Typhoid conjugate vaccines represent a new tool for typhoid control; however, incidence data are needed to inform decisions about introduction. We sought to estimate typhoid and paratyphoid fever incidence in Vientiane, the capital and largest city of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). We did a representative cluster survey of health-seeking behavior for fever in Vientiane from January 15, 2019 through January 26, 2019. Multipliers derived from the survey were applied to data from Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A bloodstream infection surveillance from Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a highly invasive bacterium that infects the human intestinal mucosa and causes ~  11.9–20.6 million infections and ~ 130,000–223,000 deaths annually worldwide. Oral...
Source: Journal of Translational Medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
AbstractThe Vi polysaccharide typhoid fever vaccine (TFV) provides incomplete protection against typhoid fever. BCG, the vaccine against tuberculosis, can potentiate immune responses to other vaccines through induction of trained innate immunity and heterologous adaptive immunity. We performed an explorative, randomized, noncontrolled open trial to investigate whether BCG vaccination increases humoral and cellular response to TFV and whether BCG and TFV modulate nonspecific immune responses. Thirty volunteers were randomized to receive either TFV alone or BCG followed by TFV after 2  weeks. Ex vivo leukocyte responses...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
We report a case of co-infection with Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A confirmed by blood culture in a child aged 8 years 5 months with history of typhoid vaccination from an ongoing fever surveillance cohort in an urban slum of New Delhi. Co-infections such as these have important implications on diagnosis, treatment options including choice of antimicrobial(s), disease outcome and strategy for prevention.
Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
[The Herald] At least 90 percent of children between five and 16 years were vaccinated during the 2019 typhoid campaign in Harare's high risk areas, including 74 percent of those aged between six months and four years.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
The year of the rat is off to an ominous start. “We just stay home and don’t go out,” says Mr. Dong. The 33-year-old researcher, who provided only one name, has no other options. He, his wife and their 3-month-old daughter live in Wuhan, the epicenter of an unfolding global health crisis. They’re treating the forced time at home as a holiday, though he says, “this is different than any of them before.” Families like his huddle in their homes, fearful that if they venture out, they will get sick. Since the first cases of a previously unknown pneumonia-like illness emerged in December, Wuh...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
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