Effect of metformin on the risk of prostate cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes by considering different confounding factors: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Preclinical studies have suggested the antitumorigenic properties of metformin on prostate cancer; results from epidemiological studies remain contradictory. We aim to investigate the evidence of metformin and the risk of prostate cancer. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were searched for eligible studies. Meta-analyses were carried out using the most fully adjusted hazard ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Eighteen cohort studies and six case–control studies representing 2 009 504 male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified. The pooled HR of prostate cancer for metformin therapy was 0.97 (0.84–1.12) in case–control studies and 0.94 (0.79–1.12) in cohort studies, respectively. In cohort studies, we found that there was a modest association in studies with samples from Europe, but not in studies with samples from North America, Asia, and Oceania. In addition, metformin showed a slightly protective effect compared with sulfonylurea, but not insulin and other comparators. Meta-regression analyses found that obesity and prostate-specific antigen adjustment in statistical models may be the sources of heterogeneity. However, there were no significant differences in subgroups stratified by time-related biases, analytical approaches, types of risk estimates, study quality, publication year, and whether adjusted for smoking, alcohol abuse, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes duration, and other confounding ...
Source: European Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Prostate Cancer Source Type: research

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ConclusionSubstantial agreement exists among experts regarding many strong recommendations for the improvement of practice concerning the use of muscle relaxants and reversal agents during anaesthesia. In particular, the French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR) recommends the use of a device to monitor neuromuscular blockade throughout anaesthesia.
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: CellAuthor(s): Melody G. Campbell, Anthony Cormier, Saburo Ito, Robert I. Seed, Andrew J. Bondesson, Jianlong Lou, James D. Marks, Jody L. Baron, Yifan Cheng, Stephen L. NishimuraSummaryIntegrin αvβ8 binds with exquisite specificity to latent transforming growth factor-β (L-TGF-β). This binding is essential for activating L-TGF-β presented by a variety of cell types. Inhibiting αvβ8-mediated TGF-β activation blocks immunosuppressive regulatory T cell differentiation, which is a potential therapeutic strategy i...
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
We describe three new settings in which ASE improves the detection of a variety of antibodies applied on long-time stored non-human primate brain sections, cell culture monolayers and on squamous carcinomas retrieved from cervical cancer patients. The significant improvement of ASE over optimized immunohistochemical protocols used in clinical practice (i.e. cancer detection) combined with its simplicity and low cost makes it an attractive method for biomedical applications.
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Hongyi LiuAbstractGrowing evidence has indicated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are closely implicated in the progress of epilepsy. However, the expression profile and potential function of long noncoding RNAs cancer susceptibility candidate 2 (lncRNA CASC2) in epilepsy are poorly studied. The aim of this study was to testify the influence of lncRNA CASC2 on epilepsy in rat and cell models of epileptic seizure. We adopted qRT-PCR on the hippocampus of rats following pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-stimulated epilepsy. To furthe...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Yildirim M, Kaplan M, Duzenli T, Tanoglu A, Kucukodaci Z, Onal Tastan Y, Cakir Guney B, Serindag Z Abstract Background: To investigate the protective efficacy of pentoxifylline through biochemical parameters and histopathological scores in a caerulein- and alcohol-induced experimental model of chronic pancreatitis in rats.Methods: A model of chronic pancreatitis with caerulein and alcohol was created in female rats of the genus Sprague Dawley. Pentoxifylline was administered in doses of 25 mg/kg (low dose) and 50 mg/kg (high dose) as a protective agent. Each group contained 8 animals. The gro...
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: The Annals of Thoracic SurgeryAuthor(s): Pierre-Emmanuel Falcoz
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Stage at diagnosis for Māori cancer patients: disparities, similarities and data limitations. N Z Med J. 2020 Jan 17;133(1508):43-64 Authors: Gurney J, Stanley J, Jackson C, Sarfati D Abstract Māori are more likely than non-Māori to get cancer, and once they have cancer they are less likely to survive it. One frequently proposed explanation for this survival disparity is differences between these groups in terms of stage at diagnosis-whereby Māori may be less likely to be diagnosed at an earlier stage, when treatment is more feasible and outcomes are better for the patient. However, this simple exp...
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Conclusion: Administration of CoQ10 for 3 months in T1DM pediatric patients was well tolerated but had no favorable effect on ED or metabolic parameters. PMID: 31942840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research - Category: Nutrition Tags: Int J Vitam Nutr Res Source Type: research
Conclusions: PEG-HCC can improve some parameters of disease in these models and this may be due to a resulting increase in peripheral insulin sensitivity. However, additional studies are needed to elucidate how PEG-HCCs are producing these effects. PMID: 31937152 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Investig Drugs Source Type: research
In conclusion, polyphenol compounds and their principal metabolites may contribute to counteracting human obesity via promoting WAT browning.
Source: Trends in Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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