Chemistry, metabolism and pharmacology of carcinogenic alkaloids present in areca nut and factors affecting their concentration

Publication date: Available online 2 December 2019Source: Regulatory Toxicology and PharmacologyAuthor(s): Alpana K. Gupta, Sonam Tulsyan, Nisha Thakur, Vishwas Sharma, Dhirendra N. Sinha, Ravi MehrotraAbstractAreca Nut (AN), the seed of tropical palm tree Areca catechu, is a widely chewed natural product with estimated 600 million users across the world. Various AN products, thriving in the market, portray ‘Areca nut’ or ‘Supari’ as mouth freshener and safe alternative to smokeless tobacco. Unfortunately, AN is identified as a Group 1 human carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Wide variation in the level of alkaloids, broadly ranging from 2 to 10 mg/gm dry weight, is observed in diverse variety of AN sold worldwide. For the first time, various factors influencing the formation of carcinogenic alkaloids in AN at various stages, including during the growth, processing, and storage of the nut, are discussed. Current review illustrates the mechanism of cancer induction by areca alkaloids in humans and also compiles dose-dependent pharmacology and toxicology data of arecoline, the most potent carcinogenic alkaloid in AN. Careful monitoring of the arecoline content in AN can potentially be used as a tool in product surveillance studies to identify the variations in characteristics of various AN sample sold worldwide. The article will help to generate public awareness and sensitize the government bodies to initiate campaigns agai...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology - Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

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Source: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Abstract Areca Nut (AN), the seed of tropical palm tree Areca catechu, is a widely chewed natural product with estimated 600 million users across the world. Various AN products, thriving in the market, portray 'Areca nut' or 'Supari' as mouth freshener and safe alternative to smokeless tobacco. Unfortunately, AN is identified as a Group 1 human carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Wide variation in the level of alkaloids, broadly ranging from 2 to 10 mg/gm dry weight, is observed in diverse variety of AN sold worldwide. For the first time, various factors influencing the formation of c...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Regul Toxicol Pharmacol Source Type: research
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Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
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Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. It is preceded by early asymptomatic lesions which, if identified early enough and removed, would prevent malignant transformation or avoid delaying diagnosis to advanced stages. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of a screening programme for SCC of the head and neck in a group of high-risk patients, and to investigate their addiction profile. Patients admitted to an inpatient alcohol addiction centre (n=101) were prospectively enrolled and asked to fill in a questionnaire about their use of tobacco and alcohol, and the prese...
Source: The British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
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