The Use of Test-negative Controls to Monitor Vaccine Effectiveness: A Systematic Review of Methodology

Conclusions: Our review highlights similarities and differences in the application of the test-negative design that deserve further examination. If vaccination reduces disease severity in breakthrough infections, particular care must be taken in interpreting vaccine effectiveness estimates from test-negative design studies.
Source: Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Tags: Methods Source Type: research

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Future control of pneumonia and diarrhea mortality in India requires understanding of their etiologies. We combined time series analysis of seasonality, climate-region, and clinical syndromes from 243,000 verbal autopsies in the nationally-representative Million Death Study. Pneumonia mortality at 1 month-14 years was greatest in January (Rate ratio (RR) 1.66, 99%CI 1.51-1.82; versus the April minimum). Higher RRs at 1-11 months suggested respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) etiology. India's humid subtropical region experienced a unique summer pneumonia mortality. Diarrhea mortality peaked in July (RR 1.66, 1.48-1.85) and Ja...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Epidemiology and Global Health Source Type: research
Abstract Vaccines are excellent investments with far-reaching rewards beyond individual and population health, but their introduction into national programs has been historically slow in Africa. We provide an overview of the introduction of new and underutilized vaccines in countries of the WHO African Region by 2017, using data from the WHO-UNICEF Joint Reporting Form. By 2017, all 47 countries had introduced vaccines containing hepatitis B (compared to 11% in 2000 and 98% in 2010) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (compared to 4% in 2000 and 91% in 2010). The proportion of countries that had introduced oth...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
In conclusion, we demonstrated that the selective boosting of lung innate immunity is a conceptually advantageous approach for improving the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment and fighting antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Introduction Pneumonia constitutes a major cause of death, morbidity and health resource use worldwide. The main causative agents identified in adult patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are viruses (in 27–30% of cases, the most common being rhinovirus, influenza and coronavirus) and bacteria (14–23% of cases, with a marked predominance of Streptococcus pneumonia...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Discussion Vaccines are a mainstay of infectious disease prevention and health promotion. Infants, children and adults benefit from vaccines the most when they are given on the recommended schedules. However there are times when this is not possible as children come to the physician a little early, or a little late, or had unavailable records and so received addition vaccine, etc. There are many questions that arise because of these timing issues such as the one above. Standard vaccine schedules can be reviewed here. Commonly administered vaccines includes: Live-attenuated vaccines Cholera Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 009 The diagnosis of HIV is no longer fatal and the term AIDS is becoming less frequent. In many countries, people with HIV are living longer than those with diabetes. This post will hopefully teach the basics of a complex disease and demystify some of the potential diseases you need to consider in those who are severely immunosuppressed. While trying to be comprehensive this post can not be exhaustive (as you can imagine any patient with ...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine AIDS art cryptococcoma cryptococcus HIV HIV1 HIV2 PEP PrEP TB toxoplasma tuberculoma Source Type: blogs
Authors: McRae JE, Quinn HE, Macartney K Abstract Introduction: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment for selected serious childhood conditions, particularly vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS data is used to better understand these conditions, inform policy and practice under the National Immunisation Program, and enable rapid public health responses for certain conditions of public health importance. PAEDS enhances data available from oth...
Source: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Commun Dis Intell Q Rep Source Type: research
Quite a high number of new vaccines have been introduced into the global healthcare programme during the past 15 years. Among them vaccines against Streptococcus pneumonia, rotavirus, human papillomavirus, Neisseria meningitides, varicella zoster virus (responsible for herpes zoster), dengue, and new ones against influenza viruses [1], are now in the market, but others against malaria and Ebola are coming soon [2].
Source: Health Policy - Category: Health Management Authors: Source Type: research
This report summarizes the recent epidemiological studies on vaccine in Japan as a prologue to the next six papers collected from the symposium. PMID: 28818469 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Conclusion The increase in childhood illness must have a cause or trigger. There must be common factors when half of America’s children are chronically ill. Could vaccine ingredients be the causal factor of the increase in childhood illnesses? This question remains unanswered by the CDC. As stated above, many CDC employees have a vested financial interest in continuing to sell and market vaccines. As childhood illnesses continue to increase, logic and reason must be applied to the debate and we must identify common factors. What do American children have in common? The large majority receive vaccines per the CDC sche...
Source: vactruth.com - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Logical Sarah Carrasco Top Stories Polysorbate 80 truth about vaccines vaccine ingredients Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: There was a paucity of cost-effectiveness models evaluating vaccination targeted to the Hong Kong population. All evaluated vaccinations and immunisation interventions in Hong Kong, except for Haemophilus influenzae b, hepatitis A and HPV vaccinations, were considered either cost-saving or very cost-effective when compared to status quo. PMID: 28476628 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
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