Polymorphism analyses and protein modelling inform on functional specialization of Piwi  clade genes in the arboviral vector Aedes albopictus

by Michele Marconcini, Luis Hernandez, Giuseppe Iovino, Vincent Hou é, Federica Valerio, Umberto Palatini, Elisa Pischedda, Jacob E. Crawford, Bradley J. White, Teresa Lin, Rebeca Carballar-Lejarazu, Lino Ometto, Federico Forneris, Anna-Bella Failloux, Mariangela Bonizzoni Current knowledge of the piRNA pathway is based mainly on studies onDrosophila melanogaster where three proteins of the Piwi subclade of the Argonaute family interact with PIWI-interacting RNAs to silence transposable elements in gonadal tissues. In mosquito species that transmit epidemic arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya viruses,Piwi clade genes underwent expansion, are also expressed in the soma and cross-talk with proteins of recognized antiviral function cannot be excluded for some Piwi proteins. These observations underscore the importance of expanding our knowledge of the piRNA pathway beyond the model organismD.melanogaster. Here we focus on the emerging arboviral vectorAedes albopictus and we couple traditional approaches of expression and adaptive evolution analyses with most current computational predictions of protein structure to study evolutionary divergence among Piwi clade proteins. Superposition of protein homology models indicate possible high structure similarity among all Piwi proteins, with high levels of amino acid conservation in the inner regions devoted to RNA binding. On the contrary, solvent-exposed surfaces showed low conservation, with several sites under positiv...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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[Radio Dabanga] Sudan -Sudan's Ministry of Health has declared that the country is free of dengue and Chikungunya for the first time since August 2019. The International Epidemiological Office of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has declared that livestock is also free of epidemic diseases in Sudan.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
ConclusionIn scenarios where human surveillance is not possible or when transmission intensity is very low, virological surveillance inAe.aegypti may be able to detect and monitor ZIKV epidemic activity. However, surveillance for humans seeking care for Zika-like symptoms likely provides an equivalent or more sensitive indicator of transmission intensity in most circumstances.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
[Radio Dabanga] Khartoum -More than 1.8 million cases of malaria were reported from across Sudan so far in 2019, a sharp increase compared to previous years, the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) reported on Thursday. Cases of diphtheria, dengue fever, rift valley fever, chikungunya, and cholera continue to be recorded across the country, according to the Sudanese Ministry of Health.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
Abstract In 2013, cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection were first detected in the Caribbean. Chikungunya virus rapidly spread through Central and South America, causing explosive outbreaks in naive populations. Since its emergence in 2004, the number of case and series reports describing severe, atypical manifestations seen in chikungunya patients has increased substantially, calling into question whether clinicians and health services are failing to diagnose these atypical cases because of not only insufficient knowledge but also limitations in the case classification. Although this classification based o...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Aedes aegypti is the main vector of three neglected tropical diseases: dengue, zika and chikungunya. Dengue is under surveillance by health organizations worldwide due to the risk of epidemics. Since there is no specific treatment for dengue, most studies have focused on preventing the reproduction and/or development of the mosquitoes. We studied the larvicidal activity of five phosphates and phosphorothioates derived from cardol, one of the four main components of cashew nut shell liquid (Anacardium occidentale L.), at different concentrations. The organophosphorothioate derivatives were tested for their in vitro inhibito...
Source: Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Epidemics of dengue, chikungunya and Zika are a growing threat to areas where Aedes aegypti are present. The efficacy of chemical control of Ae. aegypti is threatened by the increasing frequency of insecticide re...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Children are especially vulnerable to this group of diseases due to characteristics that facilitate the development of the most severe forms. More detailed knowledge of this group of diseases allows the pediatrician to diagnose them earlier, implement the correct treatment, monitor warning signs for the most severe forms, and establish effective preventive measures. PMID: 31605670 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Jornal de Pediatria - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: J Pediatr (Rio J) Source Type: research
The objective of the study was estimate the seroprevalence of ZIKV infection during the pre-epidemic phase in Barranquilla, Colombia, and demonstrate the presence of virus before the Colombian Ministry of Health confirmed the first case. We conducted a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Zika virus in 390 samples obtained from a blood bank located in Barranquilla, Colombia - a city endemic for dengue, and with a recent history of a Chikungunya disease epidemic. The serum pools were tested using Euroimmun ZIKV ELISA kit. Seroprevalence of Zika virus IgG were: May 2015: 0%, June and July 2015: 2.62% (95% CI = 0.28-12....
Source: An Acad Bras Cienc - Category: Science Authors: Tags: An Acad Bras Cienc Source Type: research
Hurricane Dorian’s 185 mph winds and punishingly slow pace smashed entire neighborhoods in the Bahamas, killing at least 50 people. But now, Bahamians are facing a different kind of threat. The lack of access to toilets, clean water and medications puts tens of thousands at risk for disease, public health experts warn. Bahamians in the hardest-hit areas are already suffering from cuts and gashes caused by widespread debris and wreckage. But now aid groups are saying survivors are beginning to show signs of gastrointestinal issues from contaminated water. Those with chronic illnesses are struggling without access to t...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Bahamas Infectious Disease onetime weather Source Type: news
Conclusions: The results showed that the network topology exhibits the features of a scale-free network instead of a random network. Focal hubs are highlighted and the critical period is found. Outcomes are important for the researchers, health officials, and policy makers who deal with arbovirus epidemic diseases. Zika virus and Chikungunya virus can also be modelled and analyzed in this manner. PMID: 31406610 [PubMed]
Source: Healthcare Informatics Research - Category: Information Technology Tags: Healthc Inform Res Source Type: research
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