RETROSPECTIVE Hepatitis C Virus: 30 Years after Its Discovery

Evidence for the existence of another hepatitis-causing pathogen, other than the known hepatitis A and B viruses, emerged in the mid-1970s. A frustrating search of 15 years was ended by the identification of the hepatitis C virus in 1989 using a recombinant DNA immunoscreening method. This discovery quickly led to blood tests that eliminated posttransfusion hepatitis C and could show the partial efficacy of type 1 interferon-based therapies. Subsequent knowledge of the viral replication cycle then led to the development of effective direct-acting antivirals targeting its serine protease, polymerase, and nonstructural protein 5A that resulted in the approval of orally available drug combinations that can cure patients within a few months with few side effects. Meanwhile, vaccine strategies have been shown to be feasible, and they are still required to effectively control this global epidemic.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Hepatitis C Viruses: The Story of a Scientific and Therapeutic Revolution RETROSPECTIVE Source Type: research

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This study estimated the frequency of viral hepatitis by occupational and non-occupational infections and analyzed the factors associated with case notifications in Brazil from 2007 to 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was an exploratory epidemiological study using the Notifiable Diseases Information System database. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: The frequency of viral hepatitis by occupational infections was 0.7%, of which 1.3% were due to hepatitis A virus (HAV), 45.1% hepatitis B virus (HBV), and 45.3% hepatitis C virus (HCV). There was a significant association of the disease wit...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
The introduction of blood donor screening by virus nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) in the mid to late 1990s was driven by the so-called AIDS and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic, with thousands of recipients of infected blood products and components. Plasma fractionators were the first to introduce NAT testing besides pathogen reduction procedures, to reduce the virus transmission risk through their products. To achieve a similar safety standard, NAT was then also introduced for labile blood components. German transfusion centres were the first to start in-house NAT testing of their donations in pools of up to ...
Source: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Monitoring the titer of IVIG lots and seroprevalence of donor populations is important for anticipating future changes in virus antibody titers of IVIG lots and can provide useful information of clinical interest. PMID: 30284288 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Transfusion - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Transfusion Source Type: research
This study aims to explore, visualize and compare the epidemiologic trends and spatial changing patterns of different types of viral hepatitis (A, B, C, E and unspecified, based on the classification of CDC) at the provincial level in China. The growth rates of incidence are used and converted to box plots to visualize the epidemiologic trends, with the linear trend being tested by chi-square linear by linear association test. Two complementary spatial cluster methods are used to explore the overall agglomeration level and identify spatial clusters: spatial autocorrelation analysis (measured by global and local Moran&rsquo...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Publication date: July 2016 Source:Medical Journal Armed Forces India, Volume 72, Issue 3 Author(s): Sandeep Satsangi, Yogesh K. Chawla Viral hepatitis is a cause for major health care burden in India and is now equated as a threat comparable to the “big three” communicable diseases – HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus are predominantly enterically transmitted pathogens and are responsible to cause both sporadic infections and epidemics of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus are predominantly spread via parenteral route and are notorious...
Source: Medical Journal Armed Forces India - Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research
News Roundup: President Obama Announces Actions to Address the Prescription Opioid Abuse and Heroin Epidemic • HHS Issues Guidance on Federal Funding for Syringe Services Programs • Other Recent Legislation, Guidelines, and Measures to Address Drug Addiction • CDC: 75% Increase in Reported Hepatitis C Deaths Between 2003 and 2013 • National Academies: Eliminating Hepatitis B and C Is Feasible, But Will Require Substantial Resources and Resolve • Focus on HIV Among Transgender People • HIV Treatment Dramatically Decreases Opportunistic Infections in Low- and Middle-Income Nations • Limited...
Source: AIDS Action News - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
MACHIAS, Maine (AP) -- Public health agencies and drug treatment centers nationwide are scrambling to battle an explosive increase in cases of hepatitis C, a scourge they believe stems at least in part from a surge in intravenous heroin use. In response, authorities are instituting or considering needle exchange programs but are often stymied by geography - many cases are in rural areas - and the cost of treatment in tight times. In Washington County, at the nation's eastern edge, the rate of the acute form of hepatitis C last year was the highest in a state that was already more than triple the national average. The probl...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
July 28 is World Hepatitis Day, a sorely-needed awareness campaign for diseases that affect more than 400 million people alive today. In the U.S., more people die from hepatitis C than they do from HIV/AIDS. And despite being preventable with vaccine, hepatitis B causes an estimated 1 million deaths every year and is the leading cause of liver cancer worldwide. Despite these shocking numbers, the virus is little understood and discussed, and that’s got to change, according to Dr. H. Nina Kim, director of the Madison HIV/Hepatitis Coinfection Clinic in Washington. “In some ways, the HIV epidemic is tie...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
This report summarizes viral hepatitis surveillance and outbreak data reported to IDSP during 2011-2013. During this period, 804,782 hepatitis cases and 291 outbreaks were reported; the virus type was unspecified in 92% of cases. Among 599,605 cases tested for hepatitis A, 44,663 (7.4%) were positive, and among 187,040 tested for hepatitis E, 19,508 (10.4%) were positive. At least one hepatitis outbreak report was received from 23 (66%) of 35 Indian states. Two-thirds of outbreaks were reported from rural areas. Among 163 (56%) outbreaks with known etiology, 78 (48%) were caused by hepatitis E, 54 (33%) by hepatitis A, 19 ...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
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