What Causes Respiratory Failure?

Discussion The respiratory system is a complex system. The upper airways must remain patient. The lower airways must interface with the vascular system. The musculoskeletal system must provide mechanical function and the central nervous system must provide overall control. Respiratory failure occurs when the overall system cannot support the body’s necessarily ventilation, oxygenation or both. Children are at higher risk of respiratory failure. They have few intrinsic lung parenchyma problems, but have very small airways that increase the airflow resistance by themselves but then have to contend with problems such as airway edema, secretions, or bronchoconstriction which dramatically increase resistance. Remember that airflow resistance is inversely proportional to the size of the airway to the 4th power. Therefore small changes in airway size create large resistance forces. The chest wall is also more compliant which makes exerting necessary pressures for ventilation more difficult. The diaphragm also has fewer muscle fibers to exert the necessary pressure when contracting and the central nervous system is also more immature resulting in more bradypnea or apnea. The signs and symptoms of respiratory failure include tachypnea, retractions, head bobbing, grunting, nasal flaring, tracheal tugging, belly breathing, and altered mental status (agitation is common for hypoxic patients, and somnolence with hypercarbia but either can occur). Other physical examination signs in...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Bergland OU, Søraas CL, Larstorp ACK, Halvorsen LV, Hjørnholm U, Hoffman P, Høieggen A, Fadl Elmula FEM Abstract PURPOSE: The blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) in treatment-resistant hypertension shows variation amongst the existing randomised studies. The long-term efficacy and safety of RDN require further investigation. For the first time, we report BP changes and safety up to 7 years after RDN, compared to drug adjustment in the randomised Oslo RDN study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with treatment-resistant hypertension, defined...
Source: Blood Pressure - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang W, Xu JZ, Lu XH, Li H, Wang D, Wang JG Abstract PURPOSE: We hypothesise that dietary sodium intake interacts with serum uric acid to influence blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents. In the present study, we investigated ambulatory BP in relation to hyperuricaemia, dietary sodium intake and their interaction in children and adolescents with hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  A total of 616 study participants were 10-24 years old and had primary hypertension diagnosed after admission in a specialised inpatient ward. Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed during hospitalisat...
Source: Blood Pressure - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
Boosting the sensitivity of in vitroβ-lactam allergy diagnostic tests. Chem Commun (Camb). 2020 Oct 14;56(80):11973-11976 Authors: Peña-Mendizabal E, Morais S, Maquieira Á Abstract The synthesis of structurally new haptens and the development of suitable antigens are essential for boosting the sensitivity of drug allergy diagnostic testing. Unprecedented structural antigens for benzylpenicillin and amoxicillin are characterised and evaluated in a cohort of 70 subjects with a turnkey solution based on consumer electronics. PMID: 33033809 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Chemical Communications - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chem Commun (Camb) Source Type: research
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Source: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Authors: Tamai H, Shingaki N, Ida Y, Shimizu R, Maeshima S, Okamura J, Kawashima A, Nakao T, Hara T, Matsutani H, Nishikawa I, Higashi K Abstract BACKGROUND: Although clinical use of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin has been approved for patients infected with genotype 2 hepatitis C virus, patients ≥ 75-years-old have not been included in previous clinical trials. AIM: To evaluate the real-world safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for elderly patients (≥ 75-years-old) compared to nonelderly patients, we conducted a post-marketing prospective cohort study. METHODS: We treated 265 patients with ge...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research
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