Dietary protein insufficiency - an important consideration in fatty liver disease?

Dietary protein insufficiency - an important consideration in fatty liver disease? Br J Nutr. 2019 Nov 29;:1-29 Authors: Ampong I, Watkins A, Gutierrez-Merino J, Ikwuobe J, Griffiths HR Abstract Dietary protein insufficiency has been linked to excessive triglyceride storage (TG) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in developing countries. Hepatic TG accumulation following a low-protein diet may be due to altered peroxisomal, mitochondrial and gut microbiota function. Hepatic peroxisomes and mitochondria normally mediate metabolism of nutrients to provide energy and substrates for lipogenesis. Peroxisome biogenesis and activities can be modulated by odd (OCFA) and short-chain (SCFA) fatty acids that are derived from gut bacteria e.g. propionate and butyrate. Also produced during amino acid metabolism by peroxisomes and mitochondria, higher propionate and butyrate levels correlate with reduced risk of obesity, insulin resistance and NAFLD. In this horizon-scanning review, we have compiled available evidence on the effects of protein malnutrition on OCFA production, arising from loss in mitochondrial, peroxisomal and gut microbiota function, and its association with lipid accumulation in the liver. The methyl donor amino acid composition of dietary protein is an important contributor to liver function and lipid storage; the presence and abundance of dietary branched chain amino acids can modulate the composition and metabolic activity of the gut m...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): Mi Hye Kim, Jung Bae Seong, Jae-Won Huh, Yong Chul Bae, Hyun-Shik Lee, Dong-Seok LeeAbstractNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most common chronic liver disease globally. NAFLD—which can develop into liver fibrosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma—is defined as an excess accumulation of fat caused by abnormal lipid metabolism and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in hepatocytes. Recently, we reported that Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5) plays an essential role i...
Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
This study evaluated the potential anti-obesogenic hepatoprotective effects of combined treatment with L-carnitine and nicotinamide riboside, i.e., components that can enhance fatty acid transfer across the inner mitochondrial membrane and increase nicotinamide adenine nucleotide (NAD+) levels, which are necessary for β-oxidation and the TCA cycle, respectively. Ldlr −/−.Leiden mice were treated with high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with L-carnitine (LC; 0.4% w/w), nicotinamide riboside (NR; 0.3% w/w) or both (COMBI) for 21 weeks. L-carnitine plasma levels were reduced by HFD and normalized by LC. NR suppl...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research
Abstract Obesity is the predominant cause of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. NAFLD includes a spectrum of pathologies that starts with simple steatosis, which can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with the commission of other factors such as the enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Biliverdin reductase A (BVRA) reduces biliverdin to the antioxidant bilirubin, which may serve to prevent NAFLD, and possibly the progression to NASH. To further understand the role of BVRA in hepatic function, we used CRISPR-Cas9 technology to ...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research
nia Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent forms of chronic liver disorders among adults, children, and adolescents, and a growing epidemic, worldwide. Notwithstanding the known susceptibility factors for NAFLD, i.e., obesity and metabolic syndrome, the exact cause(s) of this disease and the underlying mechanisms of its initiation and progression are not fully elucidated. NAFLD is a multi-faceted disease with metabolic, genetic, epigenetic, and environmental determinants. Accumulating evidence shows that exposure to environmental toxicants contributes to the development of NAFLD by promo...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
AbstractNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis associates with intramyocellular lipid deposition and mitochondrial dysfunction. microRNAs (miRs), including pro-apoptotic miR-34a, are modulated during disease progression in liver tissue and plasma. We aimed to investigate the functional role of the miR-34a/SIRT1:AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in modulating local mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscle of human and experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Muscle biopsies were obtained from morbid obese NAFLD patients undergoing bariatric surgery. C57BL/6N mice were fed different NAFLD...
Source: Journal of Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Conclusions: While there is a certain overlap between the results of the current study and published transcriptomic profiles of non-transplanted livers with steatosis, we have identified discrete characteristics of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in liver grafts potentially utilizable for the establishment of predictive signature. Introduction Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in industrialized countries, its prevalence being estimated at 19–31.3% (1). It encompasses a range of conditions that are thought to arise from fatty liver (simple steatosis) throu...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: EET-A intervention diminishes fatty acid accumulation, fibrosis, and NFALD associated with an increase in HO-1-PGC1α and increased insulin receptor phosphorylation. A pharmacological strategy involving EETs may offer a potential therapeutic approach in preventing fibrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the development of NAFLD. PMID: 31039348 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Experimental Cell Research - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Exp Cell Res Source Type: research
In conclusion, TSF improved lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis by inducing the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway-mediated autophagy. Introduction Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a worldwide health concern due to the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes. In addition, NAFLD is closely associated with the risk factors of coronary heart disease, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, which are considered to be the leading causes of death (Wiest et al., 2017). Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of NAFLD has significantly improved, there is still no effective medica...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
In this study, room temperature (RT) of 25°C was considered as control, and RT at 32°C for 8 h per day was set as the HS treatment. After 3 weeks, the intestinal contents of jejunum, ileum, and cecum were harvested to investigate the microbiota composition variations by 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing. And the weight gain, adipose indices, intestinal morphology, and a certain number of serum biochemical parameters were also measured and analyzed. The results showed the microbial species at different levels differentially enriched in duck jejunum and cecum under HS, while no significant data were observed in i...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study was approved by the University of Sydney Animal Ethics Committee (Protocol #2015/816). The experiments described herein were carried out according to the guidelines laid down by the New South Wales Animal Research Act and the 8th Edition of the Australian code for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes. Animal Characteristics Sample size for this study was calculated as follows: considering previous studies from our group (Martinez-Huenchullan et al., 2018) and that one of our main outcomes was muscle high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, having a statistical significance of 0.05). In body comp...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
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