Prevalence and clinical impact of VIral Respiratory tract infections in patients hospitalized for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: the VIRCAP study

AbstractPrevalence and clinical impact of viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has not been well defined so far. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and the clinical impact of VRTIs in patients with CAP. Prospective study involving adult patients consecutively admitted at medical wards for CAP and tested for VRTIs by real-time PCR on pharyngeal swab. Patients ’ features were evaluated with regard to the presence of VRTI and aetiology of CAP. Clinical failure was a composite endpoint defined by worsening of signs and symptoms requiring escalation of antibiotic treatment or ICU admission or death within 30 days. 91 patients were enrolled, mean age 65.7  ± 10.6 years, 50.5% female. 62 patients (68.2%) had no viral co-infection while in 29 patients (31.8%) a VRTI was detected; influenza virus was the most frequently identified (41.9%). The two groups were similar in terms of baseline features. In presence of a VRTI, pneumonia severity index (PSI) was more frequently higher than 91 and patients had received less frequently pre-admission antibiotic therapy (adjusted OR 2.689, 95% CI 1.017–7.111,p = 0.046; adjusted OR 0.143, 95% CI 0.030–0.670,p = 0.014). Clinical failure and antibiotic therapy duration were similar with regards to the presence of VRTI and the aetiology of CAP. VRTIs can be detected in almost a third of adults with CAP; influ...
Source: Internal and Emergency Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

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ConclusionsFilmArray PP offers a rapid and sensitive diagnostic method for lower respiratory tract infections. However, clinical correlation is advised to determine its significance in interpreting multiple pathogens and detection of genes involved in antimicrobial resistance.
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: FilmArray PP offers a rapid and sensitive diagnostic method for lower respiratory tract infections. However, clinical correlation is advised to determine its significance in interpreting multiple pathogens and detection of genes involved in antimicrobial resistance. PMID: 31806539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Microbiol Immunol Infect Source Type: research
Conclusions: The results gained in the survey revealed the insufficient level of physicians’ knowledge in management of patients with CAP. On the one hand, a number of issues need to be considered more carefully, on the other hand, educational activities have to be conducted among physicians of medical and preventive treatment facilities.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Medical education, web and internet Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the efficacy of antibiotic therapies and the impact of S. aureus alpha-toxin in a model of lethal influenza virus and MRSA coinfection. We demonstrate that antibiotics primarily attenuate alpha-toxin-induced acute lethality, even though both alpha-toxin-dependent and -independent mechanisms significantly contribute to animal mortality after coinfection. Furthermore, we found that the protein synthesis-suppressing antibiotic linezolid has an advantageous therapeutic effect on alpha-toxin-induced lung damage, as measured by protein leak and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Importantly, usi...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Host Response and Inflammation Source Type: research
Conclusion: The selection of empirical antimicrobial therapy relates not only the institutions or unit-specific antibiogram but also the site of infection. We can further suggest continuing to do surveillance of antibiogram and prevalence of MDR organisms for infection control as well as for empirical therapy, part of the antimicrobial stewardship program based on yearly records to change the local hospital antibiotic policy.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusions: Viral respiratory tract infections should be considered in hospitalized patients with an exacerbation of COPD who have a history of frequent exacerbations, normal PCT value, and the absence of consolidation in CT scan of the chest. The use of broadspectrum antibiotic therapy should be avoided in patients with these features. PMID: 31414643 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Tuberkuloz ve Toraks - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Tuberk Toraks Source Type: research
ConclusionA third of patients receiving broad ‐spectrum antibiotics with a positive RV PCR had an opportunity for antimicrobial optimization, although this did not translate into a significant impact on the time to antibiotic deescalation or overall antibiotic use. Combination of RV PCR results with biomarkers to rule out bacterial coinfectio ns and chest radiographic findings may help enhance the likelihood of accepted antibiotic deescalation recommendations and represents an area of future research.
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Using NAAT for the detection of respiratory pathogens in adults presenting with SCD slightly improved the microbiological diagnostic of febrile ACS, although respiratory infections are not the main etiological factor. PMID: 31088757 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Staphylococcus lentus has never before been reported as a human pathogen in the sinonasal cavities. Otolaryngologists must routinely obtain cultures of mucus or tissue during sinus surgery in order to ensure appropriate antibiotic treatment after surgery and resolution of patient symptoms. PMID: 31072191 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tags: Ear Nose Throat J Source Type: research
ConclusionA third of patients receiving broad ‐spectrum antibiotics with a positive RV PCR had an opportunity for antimicrobial optimization, although this did not translate into a significant impact on the time to antibiotic de‐escalation or overall antibiotic use. Combination of RV PCR results with biomarkers to rule out bacterial co‐in fections and chest radiographic findings may help enhance the likelihood of accepted antibiotic de‐escalation recommendations and represents an area of future research.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
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