Genomic foundations of evolution and ocular pathogenesis in human adenovirus species D

AbstractHuman adenovirus (HAdV) commonly causes infections of respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and ocular surface mucosae. Although most adenovirus eye infections are mild and self ‐limited, specific viruses within human adenovirus species D (HAdV‐D) are associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), a severe and highly contagious ocular surface infection, which can lead to chronic and/or recurrent, visually disabling keratitis. In this review, we discuss the links b etween adenovirus ontogeny, genomics, immune responses, and corneal pathogenesis, for those viruses that cause EKC.
Source: FEBS Letters - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

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In this study, we generated a recombinant adenovirus vaccine encoding the heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) and the core neutralizing epitope (COE) of PEDV (rAd-LTB-COE). The fusion protein LTB-COE was successfully expressed by the recombinant adenovirus in HEK293 cells, and the immunogenicity of the vaccine candidate was assessed in BALB/c mice and piglets. Three intramuscular or oral vaccinations with rAd-LTB-COE at two-week intervals induced robust humoral and mucosal immune responses. Moreover, a cell-mediated immune response was promoted in immunized mice, and the neutralizing antibody inhibited both the vaccine strain ...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Our data highlight several areas of concern in the practice of standard or transmission-based precautions in the sampled population. First, hand-hygiene policies are not well enforced. Second, personal protective equipment is not appropriately used while examining potentially infectious patients. Third, eye-drop vials are not consistently discarded if contaminated with eye secretions. Lastly, a large proportion of surveyed practices use inadequate disinfection techniques of tonometers.
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Rahul A. Jonas, Lawson Ung, Jaya Rajaiya, James ChodoshAbstractKnown to occur in widespread outbreaks, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is a severe ocular surface infection with a strong historical association with human adenovirus (HAdV). While the conjunctival manifestations can vary from mild follicular conjunctivitis to hyper-acute, exudative conjunctivitis with formation of conjunctival membranes, EKC is distinct as the only form of adenovirus conjunctivitis in which the cornea is also involved, likely due to s...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
This report presents two cases of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC)-associated dacryocystitis. Both patients presented with preseptal edema. Orbital computed tomography (CT) scans were performed out of concern for orbital cellulitis and revealed soft tissue edema involving the preseptal aspect of the eyelids and also the lacrimal sac. Both patients were initially diagnosed with bacterial preseptal cellulitis with dacryocystitis and admitted for treatment with intravenous antibiotics. After no improvement on antibiotics, both patients were noted to have exam findings consistent with viral conjunctivitis, and one patient h...
Source: Orbit - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Orbit Source Type: research
In conclusion, a novel, common ELISA for FAdV-I was developed in this study and could be a powerful tool for seroepidemiological investigations and FAdVs vaccine development. PMID: 31836910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that potassium peroxymonosulfate is a promising disinfectant for the prevention of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis nosocomial infections in ophthalmological clinics. PMID: 31813297 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Eur J Ophthalmol Source Type: research
B1-type human adenoviruses (HAdVs) HAdV-3, HAdV-7, and HAdV-55 have caused epidemics in North America, Asia, and Europe. However, to date, no adenovirus vaccines or antiviral drugs have been approved for general use. In the present work, a scFv-phage immune library was constructed and mouse monoclonal antibody (MMAb) 10G12 was obtained through selection. 10G12 is specific for HAdV-7 and binds the hexon loop1 and loop2 (LP12), resulting in strong neutralization activity against HAdV-7. Additionally, it is stable in serum and buffer at various pH values. The findings provide insight into adenovirus and antibody responses and...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract In recent years, many studies have shown that recombinant adenovirus live vector-based vaccines are a promising novel vaccine candidate against virus infection. Therefore, in this study, a new type of recombinant adenovirus expressing the spike (S) protein of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), rAd-PEDV-S, was generated, and its characteristics were determined. Then, its efficacy as a vaccine candidate was evaluated in 4-week-old pigs. The results showed that the S protein could be well expressed at a high level in rAd-PEDV-S-infected cells and that the viral titers could reach 1011 PFU/mL. Fur...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Conclusions: A large HAdV outbreak is currently ongoing in the Korean military, with a trend away from seasonality, and HAdV-55 is likely the predominant strain. Persistent efforts to control the outbreak, HAdV type-specific surveillance, and vaccine development are required. PMID: 31480827 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Korean J Intern Med Source Type: research
In this study, the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis determined by hexon gene PCR in patients with clinical diagnosis of acute conjunctivitis was similar to the prevalence rate reported in other regions of the world. In our region, more than one type of hAdV type was associated with acute conjunctivitis. The predominant type was determined as hAdV-8 with a 63% ratio. These results will significantly contribute to the molecular epidemiology of hAdV types in conjunctivitis cases. PMID: 31414631 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
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